The action of colchicum or colchicine upon the kidneys has been minutely studied, and it is asserted on the one hand that the urinary solids are much diminished and, on the other hand, that they are markedly increased, the specific gravity of the secretion being much raised.
Until the advent of the modern synthetic products buchu was valued in diseases of the urinary tract, but its use is now practically obsolete.
Francis died on the 31st of March 1547, of a disease of the urinary ducts according to some accounts, of syphilis according to others.
It is also present in urine and in urinary calculi.
Thus it is liable to cause a cutaneous erythema in the course of its excretion by the skin; it has a marked diuretic action; and it is a fairly efficient disinfectant of the urinary passages.
Trophi virgate exsertile; germary paired; genito-urinary cloaca opening above the neck in the male, subapically in the female.
The development of the reproductive organs is so closely interwoven with that of the urinary that some reference from this article to that on the Urinary System is necessary.
The early history of these ducts is indicated in the article on the Urinary System.
- Diagram of the Formation of the Genito-Urinary Apparatus.
The part of the urethra above the openings of these ducts really belongs to the urinary system only, though it is convenient to describe it here.
It has been recommended in cases of chronic constipation, and of want of tone in the muscular wall of the urinary bladder.
Magnesium ammonium phosphate, MgNH 4 PO 4.6H 2 O, is found as the mineral struvite and in some guanos; it occurs also in urinary calculi and is formed in the putrefaction of urine.
Borax taken internally is of some value in irritability of the bladder, but as a urinary antiseptic it is now surpassed by several recently introduced drugs, such as urotropine.
It is probable that digitalis increases the amount of water rather than that of the urinary solids.
Its alkalo-saline springs, especially efficacious in pulmonary and urinary complaints, were known as early as 1316, but fell into disuse until rediscovered early in the 19th century.
The nocturnal enuresis or urinary incontinence of children and of adults is frequently relieved by this drug.
The hippuric acid in the urine acts as a stimulant and disinfectant to the urinary mucous membrane.
In pain due to violent sciatica relief and even permanent cure has been obtained by the injection of morphine directly into the muscle of the affected part, and in the treatment of renal and hepatic colic morphine given subcutaneously will relieve the acute pain consequent on the passage of biliary and urinary calculi.
For his time he was a skilful chemical analyst; he knew how to distinguish potash and soda by the different colorations they produce in flame, and how to test for iron with prussiate of potash: he was aware that sulphate of potash, gypsum and heavy spar, in spite of their different appearances, all contain sulphuric acid; and he recognized that there are different varieties of urinary calculi.
The further characteristic symptoms are displayed in the genito-urinary tract.
Urotropin is among the most powerful of urinary antiseptics.
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