Here the Belikh (Bilechas) joins the Euphrates, flowing southward through the biblical Aram Naharaim from Urfa (Edessa) and Harran (Carrhae); and from this point to el-IKaim four days' below Deir, the course of the river is south-easterly.
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
Urhai, modern Urfa), where, in all probability, the chief Syriac versions of the Bible were made.
The plain extending from Urfa to a dozen miles below Harran has a rich red-brown humus derived from the Nimrud Dagh east of Edessa.
The Shammar have been in undisputed mastery from Urfa to the neighbourhood of Bagdad, practically all tribes paying khuwwa to them, and even the towns, till the government garrisoned them.
Urfa is a town of J5,000; Mosul, 61,000, Bagdad, 145,000.
The language is in most parts Arabic; but Turkish is spoken in Birejik and Urfa, Kurdish and Armenian south of Diarbekr, and some Syriac in Tar `Abdin.
There are Christian missionary institutions of European origin in various places, such as Urfa, Mardin, Mosul.
Syria and Urfa-Mosul and has much transit trade and numerous khans.
The massacre of Syrians, Jacobites and Chaldees at Urfa and elsewhere formed no part of the original plan.
- Urfa lies north-east of the Nimrud Dagh.
It is situated at one of the most important crossings of the Euphrates, where there was, in ancient times, a bridge of boats, and is now a ferry on the road from Aleppo to Urfa, Diarbekr and Mosul.
Urfa is the capital of a sanjak of the same name, in the vilayet of Aleppo.
The Deutsche Orient-Mission has its chief seat in Urfa, and there have for years been American and French missions.