This was the Apamea-Zeugma, where the high road from east to west crossed the river, and it is still one of the most frequented of all the passages into Mesopotamia.
Here the Belikh (Bilechas) joins the Euphrates, flowing southward through the biblical Aram Naharaim from Urfa (Edessa) and Harran (Carrhae); and from this point to el-IKaim four days' below Deir, the course of the river is south-easterly.
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
Urhai, modern Urfa), where, in all probability, the chief Syriac versions of the Bible were made.
The plain extending from Urfa to a dozen miles below Harran has a rich red-brown humus derived from the Nimrud Dagh east of Edessa.
The Shammar have been in undisputed mastery from Urfa to the neighbourhood of Bagdad, practically all tribes paying khuwwa to them, and even the towns, till the government garrisoned them.
Urfa is a town of J5,000; Mosul, 61,000, Bagdad, 145,000.
The language is in most parts Arabic; but Turkish is spoken in Birejik and Urfa, Kurdish and Armenian south of Diarbekr, and some Syriac in Tar `Abdin.
There are Christian missionary institutions of European origin in various places, such as Urfa, Mardin, Mosul.
Syria and Urfa-Mosul and has much transit trade and numerous khans.