Only in the Urals, the Caucasus, the Timan Mountains, the region of the Donets coalfield, and the Kielce Hills is there any sign of the great folding from which nearly the whole of the rest of Europe has suffered at one time or another.
Russia, as a narrow strip on the Urals, and in the Dnieper ridge.
Slope of the Urals; in the Pai-kho ridge; and in the islands of the Arctic Ocean.
To Mogilev; they form the central plateau, as also the slopes of the Urals and the Petchora region.
Europe, represented in Poland and in the Urals, is missing in N.W.
Several smaller coalfields on the slopes of the Urals and on the Timan ridge may be added to the above.
In the Urals the marine facies is more fully developed and the fauna shows affinities with that of the Productus limestone of the Central Asian mountain belt.
Of the Urals, but the question as to the glaciation of the Urals still remains open.
Urals, as well as to some of the steppe governments.
Urals, and enters the ocean by a large estuary at the Gulf of Pechora.
Of these the black-earth region - about 150,000,000 acres - which reaches from the Carpathians to the Urals, from the Pinsk marshes in the S.W.
Isolated black-earth islands, though less fertile, occur also in Courland and Kovno, in the OkaVolga-Kama depression, on the slopes of the Urals, and in a few patches in the N.
Finally, in the S.E., towards the Caspian, on the slopes of the southern Urals and the plateau of Obshchiy Syrt, as also in the interior of the Crimea, and in several parts of Bessarabia, there are large tracts of real desert, buried under coarse sand and devoid of vegetation.
Russia, though it does reach as far as the Urals and beyond.
The temperature drops so rapidly that a month later, about October the oth on the middle Urals and November the 15th throughout Russia, the thermometer ceases to rise above the freezing-point.
On the Urals, 71° in W.
Europe have held their ground; while in the Urals only a few - now Siberian, but formerly also European - are met with.
The sable has quite disappeared, being found only on the Urals; the beaver may be trapped at a few places in Minsk, and the otter is very rare.
(1884); Regel, Flora Rossica (1884); Brown, Forestry in the Mining Districts of the Urals (1885); Reports by Commissioners of Woods and Forests in Russia (1884) birds, even to hazel-hen (Tetrao bonasa), capercailzie (T.
Bogdanov, Birds and Mammals of the Black-Earth Region of the Volga Basin (in Russian, Kazan, 1871); Karelin for the southern Urals; Kessler for fishes; Strauch, Die Schlangen des Russ.
Of Vyatka, the Permyaks in Perm, the Syryenians or Zyryans in Vologda, Archangel, Vyatka and Perm; (e) the Ugrians, or Trans-Uralian Finns, including the Voguls on both slopes of the Urals, the Ostiaks in Tobolsk and partly in Tomsk, and the Magyars, or Ugrians.
Urals, that is, the steppes of Ufa and Orenburg, extend also into Perm and Samara.
One section of them crossed the Urals and occupied the steppes between the Urals and the Volga; the remainder belong to Turkestan and Siberia.
The two principal mining centres of European Russia are the Urals, Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov and the Don Cossacks territory.
The minerals chiefly produced in the Urals are iron, coal, gold, platinum, copper, salt and precious stones.
The amount of iron and steel produced in the Urals is not quite 20% of the total in all European Russia and Poland.
The output of coal in the Urals is, altogether, less than 3% of the total for all the empire and 4% of the output of European Russia (exclusive of Poland) alone.
Gold has been mined in the Urals since 1820; but since 1892 the output has fallen off very considerably.
No less than 96% of the world's supply of platinum comes from the Urals; but the total output only ranges between 10,000 and 16,000 lb annually.
At one time all Russia was supplied with salt from the Urals, but at the present time the output is extremely small, less than 350 tons annually.
Chelyabinsk was linked by a transverse line with the middle Urals railway, which connects Perm, the head of navigation in the Volga basin, with Tyumen, the head of navigation on the Ob and Irtysh, passing through Ekaterinburg and other mining centres of the middle Urals.
They seem to have held the southern end of the Urals about Ufa and Orenburg.
From Russia, too, there is a stream of colonization across the Urals into western Siberia, and amongst the western Mediterranean populations there is constant migration to North Africa The greatest drain from Europe, however, has been across the sea to the United States, Canada and Australasia, especially to the first-named.
The whole of the iron production of the Urals depends also on the same fair.
The "caravans" of boats laden with iron-ware, starting from the Urals works in the spring, reach Nizhniy in August, after a stay at the fair of Laishev, which supplies the lower Volga; and the purchases of iron made at Nizhniy for Asia and middle Russia determine the amount of credit that will be granted for the next year's business to the owners of the ironworks, on which credit most of them entirely depend.
Again the Finnish languages spoken in various parts of Russia and more or less allied to Magyar must have spread gradually westwards from the Urals, and their development and diffusion seem to postulate a long period (for the history of the Finns shows that they were not mobile like the Turks and Mongols), so that the ancestral language from which spring Finnish and Magyar can hardly have been brought across Asia after the Christian era.
BEREZOVSK, a village of east Russia, in the government of Perm, on the eastern slope of the Urals, 8 m.
Humboldt searched for them in the Urals on account of the similarity of the gold and platinum deposits to those of Brazil, and small diamonds were ultimately found (1829) in the gold washings of Bissersk, and later at Ekaterinburg and other spots in the Urals.
There are also important ore beds in the Urals, near the border of Finland, and at the south of Moscow.
At the same time it must be remembered that there is in India, South Africa, the Urals, in Australasia and parts of North America an important series of rocks, with a " Permo-Carboniferous " fauna, which constitutes a passage formation between the Carboniferous, sensu stricto, and Jurassic rocks.
At the beginning of the 16th century the illimitable steppe of south-eastern Europe, extending from the Dnieper to the Urals, had no settled population.
In this leisurely journey Pallas went by Kasan to the Caspian, spent some time among the Kalmucks, crossed the Urals to Tobolsk, visited the Altai mountains, traced the Irtish to Kolyvan, went on to Tomsk and the Yenisei, crossed Lake Baikal, and extended his journey to the frontiers of China.