Nevertheless much of the old order was restored; the podestet who represented King Charles was assisted by 12 buoni uomini, and by the council of the 100 buoni uomini del popolo, " without the deliberation of whom," says Villani, "no great matter nor expenditure could be undertaken."
Cardinal Latino to some extent succeeded, and was granted a kind of temporary dictatorship. He raised the 12 buoni uomini to 14 (8 Guelphs and 6 Ghibellines), to be changed every two months; and they were assisted by a council of loo.
After 1282 the signoria was composed of the 3 (afterwards 6) priori of the gilds, who ended by ousting the buoni uomini, while a defensor artificum et artium takes the place of the capitano; thus the republic became an essentially trading community, governed by the popolani grassi or rich merchants.
Of these works the best known is the Dei Dozeri degli uomini, a series of trite maxims which do honour to his piety rather than to his critical judgment.
In the 14th century twelve buoni uomini representing the wards (sestieri) were superadded, all these dignitaries holding office for two months only.