As central organs we have to note the brain-lobes and the longitudinal lateral cords which form one continuous unsegmented mass of fibrous and cellular nerve-tissue.
42) the six somites of the mesosoma are not fused to form a carapace at an early stage, and they are followed by three separately marked metasomatic somites; the other three somites of the metasoma have disappeared in Limulus, but are represented (From Lankester, loc. cit.) by the unsegmented prae-anal region.
The unsegmented dense chitinous sternal plate of the metasoma (XIII to XVIII) is not removed.
- Section through an early embryo of Limulus longispina, showing seven transverse divisions in the region of the unsegmented anterior carapace.
Met, Unsegmented metasoma.
This telson may enlarge, it may possibly even become internally and sternally developed as partially separate somites, and the tergum may remain without trace of somite formation, or, as appears to be the case in Limulus, the telson gives rise to a few well-marked somites (mesosoma and two others) and then enlarges without further trace of segmentation, whilst the chitinous integument which develops in increasing thickness on the terga as growth advances welds together the unsegmented telson and the somites in front of it, which were previ ously marked by separate tergal thickenings.
Opisthosoma when segmented showing the same number of somites as in the Pedipalpi; usually unsegmented, the prae-genital somite constricted to form the waist; the appendages of its 3rd and 4th somites retained as spinning mammillae.
The two pairs of spinning appendages retain their primitive position in the middle of the lower surface of the opisthosoma far in advance of the anus on the 3rd and 4th somites, each appendage consisting of a stout, many-jointed outer branch and a slender, unsegmented inner branch.
The carapace of the prosoma was unsegmented and often bore a pair of eyes.
Ligula, unsegmented externally, occurs in birds.
They are also well marked on the cephalic shield, the tergal elements being represented by a median axial elevated area showing indistinct signs of segmentation, and a lateral unsegmented plate, the gena, which carries the eyes.
The structure of the Mollusca in the greater number of cases agrees with the hypothesis that the primitive form was unsegmented, and therefore had but one pair of coelomic ducts and one pair of nephridia.
Assuming that these ancestral forms resembled the existing Nautilus in their internal anatomy, they had two pairs of renal ducts and one pair of genital ducts, which would apparently indicate, not a single metamere or unsegmented body, but three metameres.
Palaeontology therefore throws no light on the question whether the metameric or the unsegmented Mollusca were the earlier.
On the whole, then, the most probable conclusion is that the original ancestral form of the Mollusca was unsegmented, possessed one pair of true nephridia, and one pair of coelomic ducts whose function was to conduct the generative products to the exterior.
Spiders on the contrary have no antennae, no separate head," an unsegmented abdomen and an additional pair of legs.
It is held by some morphologists that the mollusc body is unsegmented, and therefore is to be compared to a single segment of a Chaetopod or Arthropod.
There is a single unsegmented nerve-cord which runs along the ventral middle line and enlarges posteriorly into a caudal ganglion and anteriorly in a ganglion, the brain, which is not supra-oesophageal.
The " growing point " of the trunk is, in fact, situated in front of this region, and, when the full number of somites has been reached, the unsegmented part remaining forms the telson of the adult.
In a Phyllopod such as Apus the limbs of the trunk consist of a flattened, unsegmented or obscurely segmented axis or corm having a series of lobes or processes known as endites and exites on its inner and outer margins respectively.
The endopodite, when present, is unsegmented or composed of few segments and forms the " palp," and outwardlydirected lobes representing the exopodite and epipodites may also be present.
In the higher groups the two halves of the chain are more or less closely approximated and coalesced, and, in addition, a concentration of the ganglia in a longitudinal direction takes place, leading ultimately, in many cases, to the formation of an unsegmented ganglionic mass representing the whole of the ventral chain.
12) has an oval unsegmented body and three pairs of limbs corresponding to the antennules, antennae and mandibles of the adult.
14), the posterior five or six thoracic somites have their development greatly retarded, and are still represented by a short unsegmented region of the body at a time when the abdominal somites are fully formed and even carry appendages.
As regards the nauplius, however, the constancy of its general character in the most widely diverse groups of Crustacea strongly suggests that it is a very ancient type, and the view has been advocated that the Crustacea must have arisen from an unsegmented nauplius-like ancestor.
While little importance is to be given to such characters as the unsegmented body, the small number of limbs and the absence of a shell-fold and of paired eyes, it has, on the other hand, preserved archaic features in the form of the limbs and the masticatory function of the antenna.
One large cell, or megamere, remains for some time unsegmented but is finally segmented and forms the endoderm cells which are invaginated.
The principal forms assumed by the Arthropod parapodium and its rami may be thus enumerated: (1) Axial corm well developed, unsegmented or with two to four segments; lateral endites and exites (rami) numerous and of various lengths (certain 8 limbs of lower After Lankester, Q.
(2) Corm, with short unsegmented rami, forming a flattened foliaceous appendage, adapted to swimming and respiration (trunk-limbs of Phyllopods).