Suarez maintains that, though the humanity of Socrates does not differ from that of Plato, yet they do not constitute realiter one and the same humanity; there are as many "formal unities" (in this case, humanities) as there are individuals, and these individuals do not constitute a factual, but only an essential or ideal unity ("ita ut plura individua, quae dicuntur esse ejusdem naturae, non sint unum quid vera entitate quae sit in rebus, sed solum fundamentaliter vel per intellectum").
This Essence is God, and includes within itself the finite unities of man, reason and nature.
When Virchow wrote, in 1850, " every animal presents itself as a sum of vital unities, every one of which manifests all the characteristics of life," he expressed a doctrine whose sway since then has practically been uninterrupted.
The process of development is the formation of higher unities, and the last stage is the identification of the world with God.
On this assumption he deduces that in being conscious of our mental states we are conscious of soul not merely as it appears, but as it is in itself, and therefore can infer similar souls, other psychical unities, which are also things in themselves.
Similarly, he supposes our personal individual will is a collective will containing simpler will-unities, and he thinks that this conclusion is proved by the continuance of actions in animals after parts of the brain have been removed.
Sweden became completely a slave to the periwigs of literature, to the unities and graces of classical France.
Apart from the positive and permanent value of the higher unities which he succeeds in establishing, the light and suggestiveness of his discussions and treatment of the great points at issue in all the principal fields of human thought, unsatisfactory as many of his positions may be considered, make him one of the most helpful and instructive of modern thinkers.