The agitation against the Chinese covered a space of over fifty years, a long period in the history of a young country, and was promoted and kept alive almost entirely by the trades unions, and the restriction acts were the first legislative triumph of the Labour party, albeit that party was not at the time directly represented in parliament.
The Labour unions were able to secure in these years many concessions both as to hours and wages.
Much of the improvement in the lot of the wage-earners has been due to the Labour organizations, yet so late as 1881 these organizations were of so little account, politically, that when the law relating to trades unions was passed in New South Wales, the English law was followed, and it was simply enacted that the purposes of any trades union shall not be deemed unlawful (so as to render a member liable to criminal prosecution for conspirac y or otherwise) merely by reason that they are in restraint of trade.
That strike had been liberally helped by the Australian unions, and it was confidently predicted that, as the Australian workers were more effectively organized than the English unions, a corresponding success would result from their course of action.
(See also the articles Arbitration And Conciliation; Trade Unions; Labour Legislation.) Victoria was the pioneer in factory legislation, the first Victorian act of that character dating from 1873.
By it an arbitration court was instituted, consisting of a president and assessors representing the employers' unions and the workers' unions respectively; in any trade in which a dispute occurs, any union of workmen or employers registered under the act was given the right to bring the matter before the arbitration court, and if the court makes an award, an application may be made to it to make the award a " common rule," which thereupon becomes binding over the trade affected, wherever the act applies.
The Italian Federation of Agrarian Unions has greatly contributed to agricultural progress.
Some unions annually purchase large quantities ~cono of merchandise for their members, especially chemical mica.
Later the division took another aspect, the extreme wing being constituted by the sindacalisti, who were opposed to all legislative parliamentary action and favored only direct revolutionary propaganda by means of the sindacati or unions which organized strikes and demonstrations.
~ Iii The leg/zisti, moreover, were guilty of much criminal violence; they committed one murder and established a veritable reign of terror, boycotting, beating and wounding numbers of peaceful laborers who would not join the unions, and brutally maltreating solitary policemen and soldiers.
Such groups (each with its local deity) would combine for definite purposes under the impulse of external needs, but owing to inevitable internal jealousies and the incessant feuds among a people averse from discipline and authority, the unions were not necessarily lasting.
(io) For more than one hundred years before the repeal of the act, trade unions and other forms of voluntary association amongst wage-earners, combinations amongst employers, collective agreements, customary regulations, were established in many of the important trades of the country.
Trade unions, so far from disappearing, were legalized, gathered strength from the changes in industrial organization, and nowhere became so powerful as in the most progressive industries; while other forms of combination appeared, incomparably stronger, for good or evil, than those of earlier times.
It is not in the decay of combination and monopoly or in the growth of competition that we must look for the distinctive characteristics of modern problems. A 17th-century monopoly was a very weak and ineffective instrument compared with a modern syndicate; the Statute of Apprenticeship was certainly not so widely enforced as the " common rules " of trade unions; and many of the regulations of past times, which look so complicated to modern eyes, were conditions of free enterprise rather than restraints upon it.
In this scheme birds are arranged according to what the author considered to be their natural method and sequence; but the result exhibits some unions as ill-assorted as can well be met with in the whole range of tentative arrangements of the class, together with some very unjustifiable divorces.
The introduction of trades-union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organization of local labour councils, and the instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trades-unions, were valuable concessions to labour, and he further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working-classes.
Physico-chemical properties have also been drawn upon to decide whether double unions are present in the benzene complex; but here the predilections of the observers apparently influence the nature of the conclusions to be drawn from such data.
As early as1652-1654there is evidence of some slight organization for dealing with marriages, poor relief, " disorderly walkers," matters of arbitration, &c. The Quarterly or " General " meetings of the different counties seem to have been the first unions of separate congregations.
Columella regarded the gains from the births as a sufficient motive for encouraging these unions, and thought that mothers should be rewarded for their fecundity; Varro, too, seems to have taken this view.
Unions between slaves and free women, or between a freeman and the female slave of another, continued to be forbidden, and were long punished in certain circumstances with atrocious severity.
Including all unions the total is below the European proportion, but above that of Porto Rico or Jamaica in 1899.
At the same time he was prominent in the movement for the formation of labour unions, and at the congress of working men at Nantes in 1894 he secured the adoption of the labour union idea against the adherents of Jules Guesde.
It was long believed that foxes and dogs would never interbreed; but several instances of such unions have been recorded, although they are undoubtedly rare.
The only exceptions to this rule are: (I) precepts issued by the local government board for raising the sums to be contributed to the metropolitan common poor fund; and (2) precepts issued by poor law authorities representing two or more poor-law unions; in both these cases the precept has of necessity to be first sent to the guardians.
The capitularies of 805 and 821 also contain vague references to sworn unions of some sort, and a capitulary of 884 prohibits villeins from forming associations "vulgarly called gilds" against those who have despoiled them.
When these various unions of dealers and of craftsmen embraced all the trades and branches of production in the town, little or no vitality remained in the old gild merchant; it ceased to have an independent sphere of activity.
Attempts have been made to find in them the progenitors of the trades unions, but there seems to be no immediate connexion between the latter and the craft gilds.
In antiquity it was a common ceremony to arrange a holy marriage between male and female images, and such unions acted on the earth as a fertility charm.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
In the course of the 12th century sporadic and limited unions of Black Monk monasteries arose in different parts.
Association for mutual help and counsel, contemplated in some degree in the early days, from Browne to the Savoy Declaration of 1658, but thereafter forced into abeyance, began early in the 19th century to find expression in County Unions on a voluntary basis, especially for promoting home missionary work.
The unions between a superior and inferior state, e.g.
That between Austria and Hungary; (b) personal unions, distinguished from the above-named forms - for example, the union of Great Britain and Hanover.
Published of trade unions, of strikes and lock-outs and other important subjects.
Patents, designs and trade marks are now dealt with by the patent office under the charge of a controller-general (salary £1800), which is subordinate to the railway department, and copyright, art unions and industrial exhibitions are also among the matters dealt with by the department.
These unions for the most part aimed, not at incorporating the two churches in doctrine and in worship, but at bringing churches or congregations professing different confessions under one government and discipline.
The divergences in ritual and organization, the principle underlying all the various ecclesiastical unions, viz.
In the case of a dimorphic flower, such as Primula, four modes of pollination are possible, two distinguished by Darwin as legitimate, between anthers and stigmas on corresponding levels, and two so-called illegitimate unions, between anthers and stigmas at different levels (cf.
In a trimorphic flower such as Lythrum salicaria there are six possible legitimate unions and twelve illegitimate (see fig.
Experiment showed that legitimate unions yield a larger quantity of seed than illegitimate.
The council, however, desirous of negotiating unions with the minor churches of the East, remained in session for several years, and seems never to have reached a formal adjournment.
Though the direct results of these unions were the restoration of prestige to the absolutist papacy and the bringing of Byzantine men of letters, like Bessarion, to the West, the outcome was on the whole disappointing.
Outcasts alone, the offspring of irregular unions, could be ignorant of the blood which ran in their veins, of the unseen ancestors to be fed and tended in family and gentile rites.'
Customs tariffs and the monetary unions, however, are centralized at Brussels, France - Sweden and Norway, July 9, 1904.
In the various colonial Methodist unions the Bible Christians have contributed a total of 159 ministers, 14,925 members and 660 chapels.
Among the enactments the following are the most important: - the institution of industrial and labour councils, composed of employers and social employes, and of a superior council, formed of officials, workmen and employers (1887); laws assisting the erection of workmen's dwellings and supervising the labour of women and children (1889); laws for ameliorating the system of Friendly Societies (1890); laws regulating workshops (1896); conferring corporate rights on trades' unions (1898); guaranteeing the security and health of working men during hours of labour (1899).
Himself with two "sisters" of ripe age and fair to look upon; but of allowing his presbyters and deacons also to contract platonic unions with Christian ladies.
In federal unions, such as Mexico and Brazil where a central authority existed first and created the states, the belief in state rights is much weaker than it is in unions composed of originally independent states.
History shows that states forming unions of the second class are certain in after time to deny or assert that the sovereignty of the state is one of the rights reserved, according as the state belongs to a stronger or weaker section or faction; state sovereignty being the defence of the weaker state or faction, and being denied by the stronger group of states which controls the government and which asserts that a new sovereign state was created by a union of the former independent ones.
According to the system adopted, the public relief of the poor is committed(to the care of local unions (Ortsarmenverbnde) and provincial unions (Land armenverbndc),t he former corresponding, generally, to the commune, and the latter to a far wider area, a circle or a province.