The efforts of diplomacy were directed to allaying the resentment of the " Young Turks " on the one hand and the ardour of the Greek unionists on the other; and meanwhile the Cretan administration was carried on peaceably in the name of King George.
During the Civil War it was held continuously by the Unionists, but local sentiment was bitterly divided.
In the absence of higher authority Porter sanctioned on his own responsibility the request of Missouri Unionists for permission to raise troops, a step which had an important influence upon the struggle for the possession of the state.
But, in fact, it failed; and the friction engendered between the First Lord and the First Sea Lord was one of the causes which drove Mr. Asquith to invite the Unionists in May to join in a Coalition Government.
In 1864 he divided Venezuela into twenty states and formed them into a Federal republic. The twenty parties whose struggles had caused so much strife and bloodshed were the Unionists, who desired a centralized government, and the Federalists, who preferred a federation of semiautonomous provinces.
Later, in April 1864, the Confederates under General Richard Taylor won a success against the Unionists under General N.
The election was conducted with unusual bitterness; but the constituencies practically affirmed the policy of the government by maintaining, almost unimpaired, the large ma$ority which the Unionists had secured in 1895.
The Pan-Serb section of opinion in Belgrade, encouraged in this instance by some of the army chiefs for strategic reasons, has always coveted northern Albania: and the Montenegrin Unionists, led by Radovie, made every effort to secure the adoption of their full claim by the Yugoslav delegation.
It was hailed with satisfaction by the Unionists, but the pure economists complained that he had thrown sobriety and thrift to the winds.
The Liberals numbered 379, the Labour members 51, the Nationalists 83, and the Unionists only 157.
He developed enormously the policy of land purchase, which the Unionists had found to exercise such a calming and beneficial effect; and the Land Purchase Act which he successfully carried in 1903 was the most comprehensive measure of the kind ever submitted to Parliament.
These laws deal with truck, employers' liability, contractors' workmen, the recovery of workmen's wages, the hours of closing in shops and merchants' offices, conspiracy amongst trade unionists, and with factories, mines, shipping and seamen..
- The opposing forces now in the field numbered 190,000 Unionists and half that number of Confederates; sixty-nine warships flew the Stars and Stripes and a number of improvised ironclads and gunboats the rival "Stars and Bars."
On the 6th the Unionists, scattered and unable to combine, were driven from point to point, and at nightfall barely held their ground on the banks of the river.
The course of the battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks bore some resemblance to that of Shiloh; a sharp attack found the Unionists unprepared, and only after severe losses and many partial defeats could McClellan check the rebel advance.
The Unionists gained a hundred seats over their previous numbers, but the constitutional issue undoubtedly helped the government to win a victory, depending indeed solely on the votes of the Labour members and Irish Nationalists, which a year before had seemed improbable.
Under these conditions the Unionists asked only for the maintenance of neutrality, and a resolution to this effect was carried by a bare majority-48 to 47.
The State's Rights party, joined by many Democrats, founded the Southern Rights party, which demanded the repeal of the Compromise, advocated resistance to future encroachments and prepared for secession, while the Whigs, joined by the remaining Democrats, formed the party known as the "Unionists," which unwillingly accepted the Compromise and denied the "constitutional" right of secession.
The "Unionists" were successful in the elections of 1851 and 1852, but the feeling of uncertainty engendered in the south by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and the course of the slavery agitation after 1852 led the State Democratic convention of 1856 to revive the "Alabama Platform"; and when the "Alabama Platform" failed to secure the formal approval of the Democratic National convention at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1860, the Alabama delegates, followed by those of the other cotton "states," withdrew.
On the return of the Unionists to power in 1895 he resumed the leadership of the House, but not at first with the success expected of him, his management of the abortive education proposals of '96 being thought, even by his own supporters, to show a disinclination for the continuous drudgery of parliamentary management under modern conditions.
The free-trade Unionists, with the duke of Devonshire, Lord Goschen, Lord James and Lord Hugh Cecil, as their chief representatives, started a Free Food league in opposition to Mr Chamberlain's Tariff Reform league; and at a great meeting at Queen's Hall, London, on the 24th of November their attitude was made plain.
Though a few Unionists transferred their allegiance, notably Mr. Winston Churchill, and by-elections went badly, Mr Balfour still commanded a considerable though a dwindling majority, and the various contrivances of the opposition for combining all free-traders against the government were obstructed by the fact that anything tantamount to a vote of censure would not be supported by the "wobblers" in the ministerial party, while the government could always manage to draft some "safe" amendment acceptable to most of them.
At the same time the government's tenure of office was obviously drawing to its close; the usual interpretation of the Septennial Act involved a dissolution either in 1905 or 1906, and the government whips found increased difficulty in keeping a majority at Westminster, since neither the pronounced Chamberlainites nor the convinced free-trade Unionists showed any zeal, and a large number of the uncertain Unionists did not intend to stand again for parliament.
The end came in November 1905, precipitated by a speech made by Mr Balfour at Newcastle on the 14th, appealing for unity in the party and the sinking of differences, an appeal plainly addressed to Mr Chamberlain, whose supporters - the vast majority of the Unionists - were clamouring for a fighting policy.
The Unionists went to the polls with divided counsels, and sustained a crushing defeat, remarkable nevertheless for the comparative success of the tariff reformers.
Being in a miserable minority in parliament (1S7 Unionists against 379 Liberals, 51 Labour members, and 83 Nationalists), some form of consolidation among the Unionists was immediately necessary, and negotiations took place between Mr Balfour and Mr Chamberlain which resulted in the patching up of an agreement (expressed in a correspondence dated February 14th), and its confirmation at a meeting of the party at Lansdowne House a few days later.
The rejection of this budget in December by the House of Lords led to d desperate struggle at the polls in January 1910, but the confident hopes of the Unionists were doomed to disappointment.
The Unionists of the border slave states were greatly alarmed, but Lincoln by his moderate conservatism held them to the military support of the government.
And German unionists alike: " Firmly determined to preserve undimmed the lustre of our crown," it ran, " but prepared to share our rights with the representatives of our peoples, we trust that with God's aid and in common with our peoples we shall succeed in uniting all the countries and races of the monarchy in one great body politic."
Foster, the candidate upon whom the Douglas and Breckinridge Democrats and the Constitutional Unionists had united, by 32,000 votes, after a spirited campaign which was watched with intense interest by the entire country as an index of the result of the ensuing presidential election.
The hopes of the unionists were roused by the appointment of W.
1915 he declared in Parliament that trade unionists were absolutely against conscription, that to introduce it might provoke revolution.
After the change of government the last years of his life were spent in taking his due share in the vigorous opposition which the Unionists offered to the Liberal Education bills the budget of 190g, the Parliament bill, the Home Rule bill, and the Welsh Disestablishment bill.
During the Civil War the city was occupied on different occasions by Unionists and Confederates, and was made famous by Whittier's poem "Barbara Frietchie."
The majority of this body consisted of Unionists, but the Convention passed the ordinance of secession when the Federal government (April 17) called upon the state to supply its quota of armed men to suppress "insurrection" in the lower Southern states.
In 1864 the Unionists made New Orleans the seat of government.
The elections, which resulted in a Nationalist majority of 13 over all other parties, showed that the Unionists were stronger than had been thought.
Its supporters, who called themselves the South African party, the Progressives being renamed Unionists, obtained 17 seats out of a total of 26.
There were returned 69 members of the South African party, 33 Unionists and 5 Independents, among them the ex-premiers Sir Gordon Sprigg and Mr Schreiner.
He shared in the general rout of the Unionists in Jan.
This loyal attitude, no doubt, was one of the reasons, and his strong Tariff Reform programme was another, which recommended him to his party as Mr. Balfour's successor in the leadership when the claims of Mr. Austen Chamberlain and Mr. (afterwards Lord) Long appeared to divide the Unionists pretty evenly.
The two branches of the party, the Conserva tives and the Liberal Unionists, had indeed been fused, in May 1912, into one party with a combined national Unionist organization.
At once a large section of Unionists, especially in Unionist Lancashire, became alarmed lest their electoral chances should be jeopardized by the prospect of food taxes imposed without reference to the people.
Accordingly he stated in the House that Unionists would welcome an Irish settlement by general consent, but would not make new friends by betraying old; and in Oct., in answer to Mr. Asquith's overtures at Ladybank, he said that he and his colleagues would consider any proposals with a real desire to find a solution if possible.
The result of the general election greatly strengthened his position, as the Unionists had a considerable predominance in the new House of Commons.
~ t The secessionists from the Liberal partythe Liberal non Unionists, as they were calledheld aloof from it; and Lord Salisbury was forced to form his cabinet out of his immediate followers.
Though he again failed to obtain the co-operation of the Liberal Unionists, one of the more prominent of themGoschen accepted the seals of the Exchequer.
The alliance with the Liberal Unionists was, in fact, compelling the Conservative government to promote measures which were not wholly consistent with the stricter Conservative traditions, or wishes.
Mr Chamberlain and other Liberal Unionists joining the government.
Parliament was dissolved, and a new parliament, in which the Unionists obtained an overwhelming majority, was returned.
The Unionists came back equal in numbers to the Liberals, but the latter could also count on the Labor party and the Irish Nationalists; and the battle was fully arrayed for a frontal attack on the powers of the Second Chamber when the kings death in May upset all calculations.
Then Smuts turned to the Unionists, who throughout the war had supported the Botha Ministry as the one safeguard of membership for the S.
With ready self-sacrifice the Unionists accepted his invitation.
The two parties were joined into one, the Unionists becoming members of the S.
The Unionists of Ireland had been taken by surprise, and out of Ulster they had no organization capable of opposing the National League and the government combined.
A general election followed in July, and 74 Liberal Unionists were returned, forming with the Conservatives a Unionist party, which outnumbered Gladstonians and Parnellites together by over a hundred.
The Liberal Unionists, whose extinction had once been so confidently foretold, had increased from 46 to 71, and the Parnellites, in spite of the most violent clerical opposition, from 9 to 12.
The report - or rather the collection of minority reports - gave some countenance to those who held that Ireland was overtaxed, and there was a strong agitation on the subject, in which some Irish Unionists joined without perceiving the danger of treating the two islands as " separate entities."
The Irish gentry, long excluded, as landlords and Unionists, from political life, now felt to a great extent that they had no field for activity in local affairs.
The new chief secretary, while abstaining from displacing the undersecretary, whose encouragement of " devolution " had caused considerable commotion among Unionists, announced that he considered him as on the footing of an ordinary and subordinate civil servant, but Mr Wyndham had said that he was " invited by me rather as a colleague than as a mere undersecretary to register my will," and Lord Lansdowne that he " could scarcely expect to be bound by the narrow rules of routine which are applicable to an ordinary member of the civil service."
Mr Walter Long, unseated at Bristol, had made himself very popular among Irish Unionists, and a seat was found him in the constituency of South Dublin.
In May the Radicals who followed Mr Bright and Mr Chamberlain, and the Whigs who took their cue from Lord Hartington, decided to vote against the second reading of the Home Rule Bill, instead of allowing it to be taken and then pressing for modifications in committee, and on 7th June the bill was defeated by 343 to 3 1 3, 94 Liberal Unionists - as they were generally called - voting against the government.
The general election, however, returned to parliament 316 Conservatives, 78 Liberal Unionists, and only 276 Gladstonians and Nationalists, Birmingham returning seven Unionist members.
When the House met in August, it was decided by the Liberal Unionists, under Lord Hartington's leadership, that their policy henceforth was essentially to combine with the Tories to keep Mr Gladstone out.