At the Imperial Conference in London in 1907 Mr Deakin, the Commonwealth premier, was the leading advocate of colonial preference with a view to imperial commercial union; and though no reciprocal arrangement was favoured by the Liberal cabinet, who temporarily spoke for the United Kingdom, the colonial representatives were all agreed in urging such a policy, and found the Opposition (the Unionist party) in England prepared to adopt it as part of Mr Chamberlain's tariff reform movement.
The Sardinian government had formally invited that of Tuscany to participate in Unionist the war of liberation, and on the grand-dtike rejecting movethe proposal, moderates and democrats combined to ments in present an ultimatum to Leopold demanding that he ~~-~ should abdicate in favor of his son, grant a constitu- ~~ tion and take part in the campaign.
There was a brief reaction: Henry Stuart Foote (1800-1880), Unionist, was elected governor in 1851 over Davis, the States' Rights candidate, and in the same year a Constitutional Convention had declared almost unanimously that "the asserted right of secession".
Michael Hahn, Unionist and Military James M.
Lord Derby became a Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general management of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, when Lord Hartington became duke of Devonshire.
The elections to the Union House of Assembly, held in September, were notable as showing the strength of the Progressive (or Unionist) party.
But Lord Salisbury's retirement, Unionist divisions, the staleness of the ministry, and the accumulating opposition in the country to the Education Act of 1 9 02 and to the continued weight of taxation, together with the growth of the Labour movement, and the antagonism to the introduction of Chinese coolies (1904) into South Africa under conditions represented by Radical spokesmen as those of "slavery," made the political pendulum swing back.
On the 4th of December 1905 the Unionist government resigned, and the king sent for Sir Henry CampbellBannerman, who in a few days formed his cabinet.
But as the man who had doggedly, yet unpretentiously, filled the gap in the days of difficulty, and been somewhat contemptuously criticized by the Unionist press for his pains, Sir Henry was clearly marked out for the post of prime minister when his party got its chance; and, as the head of a strongly composed cabinet, he satisfied the demands of the situation and was accepted as leader by all sections.
Gradually gave way before the signs of Unionist reintegration.
The Unionist party, both in Ireland and in England, became suspicious of the tendencies of his administration, and he was driven to resignation.
In the crisis of 1860-61 Texas sided with the other Southern States in spite of the strong Unionist influence exerted by the German settlers and by Governor Sam Houston.
Throckmorton, Unionist Democrat, was elected governor.
A large fortune at a comparatively early age, he came to England in 1910, and stood successfully for the House of Commons as Unionist candidate for Ashton-under-Lyne.
He was from the first an intimate friend and adviser of Mr. Bonar Law when the latter became the Unionist leader.
In January 1910 the Liberal government was again returned to power; but the Unionist party was now committed to Tariff Reform, which had made great strides in obtaining popular support.
P. Blair, and of Nathaniel Lyon, the Unionist military commander, prevailed over the party of secession.
In Kentucky the Unionist victory was secured almost without a blow, and, even at the end of 1861, the Confederate outposts west of the Alleghenies lay no farther north than the line Columbus - Bowling Green - Cumberland Gap, though southern Missouri was still a contested ground.
This part of the state, strongly Unionist, had striven to prevent secession, and soon became itself a state of the Union (1863).
On the Potomac the Unionist generals McDowell and Patterson commanded respectively the forces at Washington and Harper's Ferry, opposed by the Confederates under Generals J.
Soon afterwards, after a steady resistance, the Unionist garrison of Lexington surrendered to Sterling Price.
Halleck went to Washington as general-in-chief, Pope was transferred to Virginia, Grant, with his own Army of the Tennessee and Rosecrans's (lately Pope's) Army of the Mississippi, was entrusted with operations on the latter river, while Buell's Army of the Ohio was ordered to east Tennessee to relieve the inhabitants of that district, who, as Unionist sympathizers, were receiving harsh treatment from the Confederate and state authorities.
The responsibilities of administration have, however, often converted a political free-lance into a steady-going official, and the Unionist press did its best to encourage such a tendency by continual praise of the departmental action of the new minister.
But the main features of the budget were adhered to, and eventually passed the House of Commons on the 4th of November, in spite of the persistent opposition of the scanty Unionist minority.
An election in August of one-half the Senate and all of the House of Representatives resulted in a Unionist majority in the new legislature of 103 to 35, and in September, after Confederate troops had begun to invade the state, Kentucky formally declared its allegiance to the Union.
He accepted the chairmanship of the Royal Commission on Ritualistic Practices in the Church, and he did valuable work as 'an arbitrator; and though when the fiscal controversy arose he became a member of the Free-food League, his parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour did much to prevent the Unionist free-traders from precipitating a rupture.
On Lord Salisbury's resignation on the 11th of July 1902, Mr Balfour succeeded him as prime minister, with the cordial approval of all sections of the Unionist party.
Mr Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Mr Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform and colonial preference, and as the session proceeded the rift grew in the Unionist ranks.
But Mr Chamberlain's new programme for a general tariff, with new taxes on food arranged so as to give a preference to colonial products, involved a radical alteration of the established fiscal system, and such out-and-out Unionist free-traders in the cabinet as Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, and outside it, like Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr Arthur Elliot (secretary to the treasury), were entirely opposed to this.
During the remainder of 1903 the struggle within the Unionist party continued.
The more aggressive protectionists among Mr Chamberlain's supporters had lately become very confident, and Mr Balfour plainly repudiated "protection" in so far as it meant a policy aiming at supporting or creating home industries by raising home prices; but he introduced a new point by declaring that an Imperial Conference would be called to discuss with the colonies the question of preferential tariffs if the Unionist government obtained a majority at the next general election.
The new compact was indicated in Mr Balfour's letter, in which he declared that "fiscal reform is, and must remain, the first constructive work of the Unionist party; its objects are to secure more equal terms of competition for British trade and closer commercial union with the colonies; and while it is at present unnecessary to prescribe the exact methods by which these objects are to be attained, and inexpedient to permit differences of opinion as to these methods to divide the party, though other means are possible, the establishment of a moderate general tariff on manufactured goods, not imposed for the purpose of raising prices, or giving artificial protection against legitimate competition, and the imposition of a small duty on foreign corn, are not in principle objectionable, and should be adopted if shown to be necessary for the attainment of the ends in view or for purposes of revenue."
The downfall of Mr Balfour's administration, and the necessity of reorganizing the Unionist forces on the basis of the common platform now adopted, naturally represented a fresh departure under his leadership, the conditions of which to some extent depended on the opportunities given to the new opposition by the proceedings of the Radical government (see Campbell Bannerman, Sir H.; and Asquith, H.
His speech at Birmingham (November 14, 1907), fully accepting the principles of Mr Chamberlain's fiscal policy, proved epoch-making in consolidating the Unionist party - except for a small number of free-traders, like Lord Robert Cecil, who continued to hold out - in favour of tariff reform; and during 1908 the process of recuperation went on, the by-elections showing toamarked degree the increased popular support given to the Unionist candidates.
He sat in the House of Commons for Ayrshire (S.) as a Unionist member from 1895-1906.
Meanwhile the Unionist and Liberal agitation was growing in strength, partly owing to the very efforts made to restrain it.
The unionist constitution, devised by Christian VIII., and pro mulgated by his successor, Frederick VII.
He refused to support Mr Gladstone's Home Rule Bill in 1885, and was one of those who chiefly contributed to its rejection, and whose reputation for unbending integrity and intellectual eminence gave solidity to the Liberal Unionist party.
A Liberal Unionist, however, could only be elected by Conservative votes, and he had made himself objectionable to a large section of the party by his independent attitude on various questions, on which his Liberalism outweighed his party loyalty.
After 1895 Mr Courtney's divergences from the Unionist party on questions other than Irish politics became gradually more marked.
Standing as a Liberal Unionist, he lost his seat at the General Election of that year, and did not reappear in Parliament till he succeeded his uncle in the earldom in 1894.
In the Frankfort parliament he was leader of the extreme Right; and after its break-up he was zealous in promoting the Unionist policy of Prussia, which he defended both in the Prussian diet and in the Erfurt parliament.
They have never been a large element in the highland counties; it was these counties which were most strongly Unionist at the time of the Civil War, and which to-day are the region of diversified industry.
In the national elections of 1860 Virginia returned a majority of unionist electors as against the secession candidates, Breckinridge and Lane, many of the large planters voting for the continuance of the Union, and many of the smaller slave-owners supporting the secessionists.
In 1860, however, he ceased to be a Unionist, and became a leader of the secession movement.
" In the attacks made upon the Unionist government this cry was loudly voiced by the Liberal party in England, and in the political campaign which followed, the " Chinese Slavery " issue undoubtedly helped to swell the majority obtained by Sir H.
He became a member of the Unionist Government in Dec. 1917.
The "passive resistance" movement, with Dr Clifford as its chief leader, had a large share in the defeat of the Unionist government in January 1906, and his efforts were then directed to getting a new act passed which should be undenominational in character.
- and the Orange or unionist party (Oranjegesinden), which was strong in the smaller provinces and had much popular support among the lower classes.
As a Democrat he served in 1836 and in1840-1843in the Illinois House of Representatives, and in1843-1851and in1859-1861was a representative in Congress, where in his first term he vigorously opposed the Wilmot proviso, but in' his second term was a strong Unionist and introduced the resolution of the 15th of July 1861, pledging money and men to the national government.