He became a member of the Unionist Government in Dec. 1917.
The unionist constitution, devised by Christian VIII., and pro mulgated by his successor, Frederick VII.
In 1860, however, he ceased to be a Unionist, and became a leader of the secession movement.
The "passive resistance" movement, with Dr Clifford as its chief leader, had a large share in the defeat of the Unionist government in January 1906, and his efforts were then directed to getting a new act passed which should be undenominational in character.
In the crisis of 1860-61 Texas sided with the other Southern States in spite of the strong Unionist influence exerted by the German settlers and by Governor Sam Houston.
But Mr Chamberlain's new programme for a general tariff, with new taxes on food arranged so as to give a preference to colonial products, involved a radical alteration of the established fiscal system, and such out-and-out Unionist free-traders in the cabinet as Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, and outside it, like Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr Arthur Elliot (secretary to the treasury), were entirely opposed to this.
During the remainder of 1903 the struggle within the Unionist party continued.
He refused to support Mr Gladstone's Home Rule Bill in 1885, and was one of those who chiefly contributed to its rejection, and whose reputation for unbending integrity and intellectual eminence gave solidity to the Liberal Unionist party.
In the Frankfort parliament he was leader of the extreme Right; and after its break-up he was zealous in promoting the Unionist policy of Prussia, which he defended both in the Prussian diet and in the Erfurt parliament.
They have never been a large element in the highland counties; it was these counties which were most strongly Unionist at the time of the Civil War, and which to-day are the region of diversified industry.
In the national elections of 1860 Virginia returned a majority of unionist electors as against the secession candidates, Breckinridge and Lane, many of the large planters voting for the continuance of the Union, and many of the smaller slave-owners supporting the secessionists.
" In the attacks made upon the Unionist government this cry was loudly voiced by the Liberal party in England, and in the political campaign which followed, the " Chinese Slavery " issue undoubtedly helped to swell the majority obtained by Sir H.
- and the Orange or unionist party (Oranjegesinden), which was strong in the smaller provinces and had much popular support among the lower classes.
As a Democrat he served in 1836 and in1840-1843in the Illinois House of Representatives, and in1843-1851and in1859-1861was a representative in Congress, where in his first term he vigorously opposed the Wilmot proviso, but in' his second term was a strong Unionist and introduced the resolution of the 15th of July 1861, pledging money and men to the national government.
He was very trenchant in his criticism of the Government; thus giving satisfaction to ardent spirits in the Unionist ranks, but causing ministerial speakers to contrast his bitterness and violence with Mr. Balfour's quieter methods.
The Sardinian government had formally invited that of Tuscany to participate in Unionist the war of liberation, and on the grand-dtike rejecting movethe proposal, moderates and democrats combined to ments in present an ultimatum to Leopold demanding that he ~~-~ should abdicate in favor of his son, grant a constitu- ~~ tion and take part in the campaign.
Michael Hahn, Unionist and Military James M.
Gradually gave way before the signs of Unionist reintegration.
The Unionist party, both in Ireland and in England, became suspicious of the tendencies of his administration, and he was driven to resignation.
Throckmorton, Unionist Democrat, was elected governor.
A large fortune at a comparatively early age, he came to England in 1910, and stood successfully for the House of Commons as Unionist candidate for Ashton-under-Lyne.
He was from the first an intimate friend and adviser of Mr. Bonar Law when the latter became the Unionist leader.
In January 1910 the Liberal government was again returned to power; but the Unionist party was now committed to Tariff Reform, which had made great strides in obtaining popular support.
P. Blair, and of Nathaniel Lyon, the Unionist military commander, prevailed over the party of secession.
In Kentucky the Unionist victory was secured almost without a blow, and, even at the end of 1861, the Confederate outposts west of the Alleghenies lay no farther north than the line Columbus - Bowling Green - Cumberland Gap, though southern Missouri was still a contested ground.
This part of the state, strongly Unionist, had striven to prevent secession, and soon became itself a state of the Union (1863).
On the Potomac the Unionist generals McDowell and Patterson commanded respectively the forces at Washington and Harper's Ferry, opposed by the Confederates under Generals J.
Soon afterwards, after a steady resistance, the Unionist garrison of Lexington surrendered to Sterling Price.
Halleck went to Washington as general-in-chief, Pope was transferred to Virginia, Grant, with his own Army of the Tennessee and Rosecrans's (lately Pope's) Army of the Mississippi, was entrusted with operations on the latter river, while Buell's Army of the Ohio was ordered to east Tennessee to relieve the inhabitants of that district, who, as Unionist sympathizers, were receiving harsh treatment from the Confederate and state authorities.
The responsibilities of administration have, however, often converted a political free-lance into a steady-going official, and the Unionist press did its best to encourage such a tendency by continual praise of the departmental action of the new minister.
But the main features of the budget were adhered to, and eventually passed the House of Commons on the 4th of November, in spite of the persistent opposition of the scanty Unionist minority.
1866), married the daughter of Lord Ashton; he was Unionist M.P. for South Manchester from 1900 to 1905, and later for Taunton, and also acted as Municipal Reform leader on the London County Council.
An election in August of one-half the Senate and all of the House of Representatives resulted in a Unionist majority in the new legislature of 103 to 35, and in September, after Confederate troops had begun to invade the state, Kentucky formally declared its allegiance to the Union.
He accepted the chairmanship of the Royal Commission on Ritualistic Practices in the Church, and he did valuable work as 'an arbitrator; and though when the fiscal controversy arose he became a member of the Free-food League, his parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour did much to prevent the Unionist free-traders from precipitating a rupture.
On Lord Salisbury's resignation on the 11th of July 1902, Mr Balfour succeeded him as prime minister, with the cordial approval of all sections of the Unionist party.
Mr Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Mr Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform and colonial preference, and as the session proceeded the rift grew in the Unionist ranks.
The more aggressive protectionists among Mr Chamberlain's supporters had lately become very confident, and Mr Balfour plainly repudiated "protection" in so far as it meant a policy aiming at supporting or creating home industries by raising home prices; but he introduced a new point by declaring that an Imperial Conference would be called to discuss with the colonies the question of preferential tariffs if the Unionist government obtained a majority at the next general election.
His speech at Birmingham (November 14, 1907), fully accepting the principles of Mr Chamberlain's fiscal policy, proved epoch-making in consolidating the Unionist party - except for a small number of free-traders, like Lord Robert Cecil, who continued to hold out - in favour of tariff reform; and during 1908 the process of recuperation went on, the by-elections showing toamarked degree the increased popular support given to the Unionist candidates.
He sat in the House of Commons for Ayrshire (S.) as a Unionist member from 1895-1906.
Meanwhile the Unionist and Liberal agitation was growing in strength, partly owing to the very efforts made to restrain it.
A Liberal Unionist, however, could only be elected by Conservative votes, and he had made himself objectionable to a large section of the party by his independent attitude on various questions, on which his Liberalism outweighed his party loyalty.
After 1895 Mr Courtney's divergences from the Unionist party on questions other than Irish politics became gradually more marked.
Standing as a Liberal Unionist, he lost his seat at the General Election of that year, and did not reappear in Parliament till he succeeded his uncle in the earldom in 1894.
During the years of Unionist ascendancy Mr Asquith divided his energies between his legal work and politics; but his adhesion to Lord Rosebery (q.v.) as a Liberal Imperialist at the time of the Boer War, while it strengthened his position in the eyes of the public, put him in some difficulty with his own party, led as it was by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who was identified with the "proBoer" policy.
He also made useful party capital out of the necessity for financial retrenchment, owing to the large increase in public expenditure, maintained by the Unionist government even after the Boer War was over; II.
He became prominent, politically, during the nullification excitement of 1832-1833, as a vigorous opponent of nullification, and from 1836 to 1845 he sat in the United States Senate as a Unionist Democrat.
On the 7th of November at Leicester Lord Rosebery insisted that what the country wanted was not fiscal reform but commercial reform, and he appealed to the free-trade section of the Unionist party to join the Liberals in a united defence, - an appeal incidentally for Liberal unity which was warmly seconded ten days later by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman.
Lord Rosebery had just gone down to Cornwall to make a series of speeches in support of the Liberal programme, now fairly well mapped out as regards those items which represented the strong public opposition to what had been done by the Unionist government..
Mar, Queensberry, Stair (of Glencoe) and Argyll (Red John of the Battles) were the leading statesmen of the Unionist party; being opposed by Hamilton, Atholl and Lockhart of Carnwath as Jacobites; by Fletcher of Saltoun as an independent patriot; by popular sentiment, by mob violence, and by many of the preachers, though not by the General Assembly.
In politics he was a strong Liberal and Unionist, and did much to inspire the organization of the Burschenschaft.
1917 he entered the Federal Unionist Government as president of the council and vice-chairman of the War Committee of the Cabinet, and was elected to the Dominion House of Commons for Durham county, Ontario, Dec. 1917.
After the great man's retirement he entered Parliament as a Liberal Unionist at a byelection in 1895 for Warwick and Leamington - a seat which he held till the Unionist downfall in 1906, returning, however, to the House a few months after the general election as member for St.
Arnold-Forster (1855-1909), the well-known Liberal-Unionist member of parliament, who eventually became a member of Mr Balfour's cabinet; he was secretary to the admiralty (1900-1903), and then secretary of state for war (1903-1905), and was the author of numerous educational books published by Cassell & Co., of which firm he was a director.
He retired with a sufficient competence, and went into Parliament in 190o as Conservative and Unionist member for the Blackfriars division of Glasgow.
There was a brief reaction: Henry Stuart Foote (1800-1880), Unionist, was elected governor in 1851 over Davis, the States' Rights candidate, and in the same year a Constitutional Convention had declared almost unanimously that "the asserted right of secession".
Lord Derby became a Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general management of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, when Lord Hartington became duke of Devonshire.
The elections to the Union House of Assembly, held in September, were notable as showing the strength of the Progressive (or Unionist) party.
On the 4th of December 1905 the Unionist government resigned, and the king sent for Sir Henry CampbellBannerman, who in a few days formed his cabinet.
The new compact was indicated in Mr Balfour's letter, in which he declared that "fiscal reform is, and must remain, the first constructive work of the Unionist party; its objects are to secure more equal terms of competition for British trade and closer commercial union with the colonies; and while it is at present unnecessary to prescribe the exact methods by which these objects are to be attained, and inexpedient to permit differences of opinion as to these methods to divide the party, though other means are possible, the establishment of a moderate general tariff on manufactured goods, not imposed for the purpose of raising prices, or giving artificial protection against legitimate competition, and the imposition of a small duty on foreign corn, are not in principle objectionable, and should be adopted if shown to be necessary for the attainment of the ends in view or for purposes of revenue."
The Unionist regime as a whole, however, had collapsed.