At the latter date besides seventy-three villeins, bordars and serfs there were forty cervisarii, a species of unfree tenants who rendered their custom in the form of beer.
Even in Roman days the proprietor had exercised a jurisdiction over the disputes of his unfree tenants.
People of Slav origin being considered unfree, all intermarriage with them tainted the blood; hence nearly all surnames point to Saxon, especially Westphalian, and even Flemish descent.
He was succeeded by his brother Emund the Old, who Emund the had been previously passed over because his mother old, 1050 was unfree, the daughter of a Slav prince and 1060.
As the word frankpledge denotes, these societies were originally concerned only with freemen; but the unfree were afterwards admitted, and during the 13th century the frankpledges were composed chiefly of villains.
There were but two degrees of men, free and unfree, though only the franklins had any political power; and, from the nature of the life, social intercourse was unrestrained and unfettered; gon and thrall lived the same lives, ate the same food, spoke the same tongue, and differed little in clothing or habits.