The offspring of the virgin females are in most of these instances females; but among the bees and wasps parthenogenesis occurs normally and always results in the development of males, the " queen " insect laying either a fertilized or unfertilized egg at will.
Wagner made his classical observations on the production of larvae from unfertilized eggs developed in the precociouslyformed ovaries of a larval gall-midge (Cecidomyid), and subsequent observers have confirmed his results by studies on insects of the same family and of the related Chironomidae.
There are species of gall-fly in which males are unknown, the unfertilized eggs always developing into females.
On the other hand, in certain saw-flies and among the higher families, the unfertilized eggs, capable of development, usually give rise to male insects (see BEE).
These unfertilized eggs develop directly, often in the uterus.
In Dictyota the unfertilized oosphere is found to be capable of undergoing a limited number of divisions, but the body thus formed appears to atrophy sooner or later.
6, C) of laying eggs - necessarily unfertilized - which always give rise to males ("drones"), and, since the researches of J.
6.) workers, and unfertilized eggs in "drone-cells," virgin reproduction or parthenogenesis being therefore a normal factor in the life of these insects.
It is believed that from the nature of the cell in which she is ovipositing, the queen derives a reflex impulse to lay the appropriate egg - fertilized in the queen or worker cell, unfertilized in the drone cell, as previously mentioned.