Some of the poorer sorts of furs, such as hamster, marmot, Chinese goats and lambs, Tatar ponies, weasels, kaluga, various monkeys, antelopes, foxes, otters, jackals and others from the warmer zones, which until recently were neglected on account of their inferior quality of colour, by the better class of the trade, are now being deftly dressed or dyed in Europe and America, and good effects are produced, although the lack of quality when compared with the better furs from colder climates which possess full top hair, close underwool and supple leathers, is readily manifest.
American sorts have coarse thick underwool of a pale fawn or stone colour with a growth of longer black and white hairs, 3 or 4 in.
Fine dark brown underwool with bright black and flowing top hair 4 in.
The largest of rodents, it possesses a close underwool of bluish-brown hue, nearly an inch in depth, with coarse, bright, black or reddish-brown top hair, 3 in.
CAT, CIvET.-Size 9X41 in., short, thick and dark underwool with silky black top hair with irregular and unique white markings.
Chinchilla, La Plata, incorrectly named and known in the trade as "bastard chinchilla," size 9 X4 in., in a similar species, but owing to lower altitudes and warmer climatic conditions of habitation is smaller, with shorter and less beautiful fur, the underwool colour being darker and the top colour less pure.
Underwool short and even, with a shade longer top hair.
Long, the largest of the martens; has a dark shaded deep underwool with fine, glossy, dark and strong top hair 2 in.
Yellow underwool a in.
Underwool thick and long.
Has a close dark drab underwool with yellowish grizzly, grey, regular and coarse top hair.
The underwool is short and soft, as is also the top hair, which is of very pale grey mixed with some yellowish-white hair.
The underwool is long and soft and the hair plentiful and strong.
Underwool close and fine.
The underwool in all sorts is generally of a bluish-grey tone, but the top hair in the depth of winter is usually full enough in quantity to, hide any such variation.
Those skins in which the underwool is quite white are rare and much more expensive.
Many from Russia are dyed black for floor and carriage rugs; the hair is brittle, with poor underwool and not very durable; the cost, however, is small.
The Mongolian goat has a very soft silk underwool, and after the long top hair is removed it is dressed and imported and erroneously named mouflon.
The underwool is short and rather weak, but regular, as is also the top hair; the colour is usually yellow.
The underwool is thinner than fox, but the top hair is fine, silky and flowing, 4 in.
For attire the skins manufactured in Europe are generally dyed black or brown, in which state it has a similar appearance to dyed fox, but having less thick underwool, and finer hair flows freely.
It possesses a thick underwool with strong top hair, and ranges from a pale to a dark bluish brown.
Marten, Stone.-Size and quality similar to the baum; the colour, however, of the underwool is a stony white and the top hair is very dark, almost black.
The underwool is short, close and even, as is also the top hair, which is very strong.
The hair is very long, very black and bright with no underwool, and the white pelt of the base of the hair, by reason of the great contrast of colour, is very noticeable.
A very prolific rodent of the amphibious class obtained from Canada and the United States, similar in habit to the English vole, with a fairly thick and even brown underwool and rather strong top dark hair of medium density.
It has, however, of later years been "unhaired," the underwool clipped very even and then dyed seal colour, in which way very useful and attractive garments are supplied at less than half the cost of the cheaper sealskins.
The underwool is of a very close frizzy nature, and nearly white, with long bluish grey mixed with some black top hair.
- The size varies considerably, as does the underwool and the top hair, according to the country of origin.
But it is in the colder northern regions that they are found in the greatest numbers and with the best fur or underwool, the top hair, which, with the exception of the scarce and very rich dark brown specimens they have in common with most aquatic animals, is pulled out before the skins are manufactured.
The underwool is T to T2 in.
Raccoon skins are also frequently unhaired, and if the underwool is of good quality the effect is similar to beaver.
The underwool is close, fine and very soft, the top hair is regular, fine, silky and flowing, varying from 12 to 22 in.
The underwool is full and fairly close with glossy, flowing top hair about 22 in.
The underwool is full and thick with strong and bright top hair about 21 in.
Subsequently the hard top hairs are taken out as in the case of otters and beavers and the whole thoroughly cleaned in the revolving drums. The close underwool, which is of a slightly wavy nature and mostly of a pale drab colour, is then dyed by repeated applications of a rich dark brown colour, one coat after another, each being allowed to thoroughly dry before the next is put on, till the effect is almost a lustrous black on the top. The whole is again put through the cleaning process and evenly reduced in thickness by revolving emery wheels, and eventually finished off in the palest buff colour.
Where the skins are heavily dyed it is comparatively easy to see the difference between a natural and a dyed colour, as the underwool and top hair become almost alike and the leather is also dark, whereas in natural skins the base of the underwool is much paler than the top, or of a different colour, and the leather is white unless finished in a pale reddish tone as is sometimes the case when mahogany sawdust is used in the final cleaning.
The baum and stone martens caught in France, the north of Turkey and Norway are of the same family, but coarser in underwool and the top hair is less in quantity and not so silky.