Its strength and popularity, especially among the artizan classes, have been very much underrated by most historians.
President Celman underrated the strength of the new opposition, and relied upon his armed forces promptly to suppress any signs of open hostility.
The decisive successes for the Alliance were gained by its naval victories, whose importance William somewhat underrated and for whose execution he had only an indirect responsibility.
Napoleon felt his impotence in coping with the Spanish Uprising insurrection, which he underrated, while yet unable to suppress it altogether.
But the French government underrated the strength of Great Britain, imagining that all Englishmen who desired parlia mentary reform desired revolution, and that a few democratic societies represented the nation.