(1842-), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, was born on the 21st of September 1842, and succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his brother Murad V., on the 31st of August 1876.
He accompanied his uncle Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his visit to England and France in 1867.
In his attitude towards Arabi, the would-be saviour of Egypt, Abd-ul-Hamid showed less than his usual astuteness, and the resulting consolidation of England's hold over the country contributed still further to his estrangement from Turkey's old ally.
Abd-ul-Hamid had always resisted the pressure of the European Powers to the last moment, in order to seem to yield only to overwhelming force, while posing as the champion of Islam against aggressive Christendom.
He accompanied the sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his journey to Egypt and Europe, when the freedom of the city of London was conferred on him.
ABULFARAJ [Abu-1-Faraj 'Ali ibn ul-Husain ul-Isbahani] (897-967), Arabian scholar, was a member of the tribe of the Quraish (Koreish) and a direct descendant of Marwan, the last of the Omayyad caliphs.
Although he wrote poetry, also an anthology of verses on the monasteries of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and a genealogical work, his fame rests upon his Book of Songs (Kitab ul-Aghani), which gives an account of the chief Arabian songs, ancient and modern, with the stories of the composers and singers.
It was then included in the dominions of Nizam-ul-mulk, the nominal viceroy of the great Mogul in the Deccan, from whom again it was subsequently conquered by Hyder Ali of Mysore.
In consolidating his empire and subduing contending factions he was ably assisted by Nizam ul-Mulk, his vizier, one of the most eminent statesmen in early Mahommedan history.
A few years later he was taken prisoner by Abdalaziz (`Abd ul `Aziz), who had defeated the sultan of Tlemcen and seized the throne.
After the death of `Abd ul `Aziz he resided at Fez, enjoying the patronage and confidence of the regent.
Jalal-uddin's life is fully described in Shams-uddin Ahmed Aflaki's Manakib-ul `arifin (written between A.D.
Masudi, who saw the maps in the Horismos or Rasm el Ard, a description of which was engraved for King Roger of Sicily upon a silver plate, or the rectangular map in 70 sheets which accompanies his geography (Nushat-ul Mushtat) take rank with Ptolemy's work.
Until the revolution of 1908, with a very short interval at the beginning of the reign (1876) of the deposed sultan Abd-ul-Hamid, the government of Turkey had been essentially a theocratic absolute monarchy.
Kadi ravatsara important of these attempts under Abd-ul-Mejid (1839-1861) proved, however, for various reasons abortive.
So also did the " Midhat Constitution " promulgated by Abd-ul-Hamid almost immediately after his accession to the throne, owing largely to the reactionary spirit at that time of the' Ulema and of the sultan's immediate advisers, but almost, if not quite, in equal measure to the scornful reception of the Constitution by the European powers.
The 'Ulema form a powerful corporation, whose head, the Sheik-ul-Islam, ranks as a state functionary almost co-equal with the grand vizier.
The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
In July of that year the sultan Abd-ul-Hamid capitulated to the Young Turks and restored by Irade (July 24) the constitution which he had granted in December 1876 and suspended on the 14th of February 1878.
A reactionary movement started in April 1909 was promptly suppressed by the Young Turks through the military occupation of Constantinople by Shevket Pasha and the dethronement of Abd-ul-Hamid, who was succeeded by his younger brother Reshad Effendi under the title of Mahommed V.
A new constitution, differing from that of Abd-ul-Halnid only in some matters of detail, was promulgated by imperial Irade of the 5th of August 1909.
The grand vizier (sadr-azam), who is nominated by the sultan, presides ex officio over the privy council (mejliss-i-khass), which, besides the Sheikh-ul-Islam, comprises the ministers of home and foreign affairs, war, finance, marine, commerce and public works, justice, public instruction and " pious foundations " (evkaf), with the grand master of ordnance and the president of the council of state.
Abd-ul-Aziz, however, with the aid of British naval officers, succeeded in creating an imposing fleet of ironclads constructed in English and French yards.
Sultan Abd-ulHamid, on the other hand, pursued a settled policy of reducing the fleet to impotency, owing to his fear that it might turn against him as it had turned against Abd-ul-Aziz.
The construction of this last line is one of the most remarkable achievements of the reign of Abd-ul-Hamid.
The kharaj, the jiziye, and the whole feudal system disappeared in theory, although its spirit, and indeed in some respects its practice, still exists in fact, during the reforming period initiated by Sultan Selim III., culminating in the Tanzimat-i-Khairiye (1839) of Abd-ul-Mejid, and the Hatt-iHumayun issued by the same sultan (1856).
The administration of the state revenues was managed by a government department known as the Beit-ul-Mal or Maliye, terms generally employed throughout Islamic countries since the commencement of Islam.
The budget of Ali Aga is almost identical with that of Eyubi Effendi, and is worthy of special note for the conclusions which accompanied it, and which although drawn up 250 years ago, described with striking accuracy some of the very ills from which Turkish finance was suffering throughout the reign of Abd-ul-Hamid.
And Abd-ul-Mejid, and the second in the reign of Mahmud only, were not included in the reform; these were debased currencies bearing a nominal value, the altilik of 6, 3 and 12 piastres, the beshlik of 5 and 22 piastres, the metallik of 1, 2 and 4 piastres; they represented the last degree of an agelong monetary depreciation, the original piastre having had a value of about 5s.
The highest dignitaries of the ecclesiastical class were at first the kazaskers, or military judges, of Europe and Asia; later the office of Sheikh-ul-Islam was created as the supreme authority in matters relating to the Church and the sacred law.
Died, and was succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid I., a weakling, from whose character nothing could be expected to retrieve the now desperate fortunes of the war.
Thus Sultan Ibrahim was dissuaded from such a step in 1644 only by the refusal of the Sheikh-ul-Islam to sanction the proceeding.
Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz's journey to Europe and the return visits paid by foreign princes strengthened Turkey's relations with foreign states.
After the promulgation of the reforms, the judicial duties of the Imperial Divan, which with other functions also exercised those of a kind of supreme court of appeal, were transferred to the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
The rules regulating the Ulema were amended, a school for judges was founded, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam was charged with the duty of revising all judgments.
In 1835 the Reis-ul-Kuttab, to whom the superintendence of foreign affairs was entrusted, received the designation of minister for foreign affairs.
On the 25th of June 1861 Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid died, being succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Aziz.
Abd-ul-Aziz is said to have yielded the more readily as being desirous of bringing about a similar alteration in the succession in Turkey, in favour of his own eldest son, Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din; public opinion was, however, opposed to so sweeping a change, and the succession to the throne in Turkey still goes to the eldest surviving member of the house of Osman.
Abd-ul-Aziz had visited the Paris Exhibition of 1867 and had paid his respects to Queen Victoria, who conferred on him the order of the Garter.
These succeeded in gaining over the Sheikh-ul-Islam, and in obtaining from him a fetva for the deposition of Abd-ul-Aziz.
In virtue of this judgment of the supreme legal authority, and with the aid of the fleet, Abd-ul-Aziz was deposed, being shortly afterwards found dead, apparently by his own hand.
Murad's brother Abd-ul-Hamid was accordingly proclaimed sultan on the 31st of August 1876.
Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
But Abd-ul-Hamid had issued a free pardon to the mutineers, and the committee had now decided that the new regime would never be secure while the sovereign favoured reaction.
To-day these have all vanished, with the exception of one aqueduct which still conveys the water of the Tigris to the shrine of Abd al-Qadir (ul-Kadir).
JAHIZ (ABU ' Uthman ` Amr Ibn Bahr Ul-Jahiz; i.e.
The Kitab ul-Mahasin wal-Addad was edited by G.
Van Vloten as Le Livre des beautes et des antitheses (Leiden, 1898); the Kitab ul -hala.
The Kiteib ul-Hayawan, or "Book of Animals," a philological and literary, not a scientific, work, was published at Cairo (1906).
His Geography of the Arabian Peninsula (Kitab Jazirat ul- ` Arab) is by far the most important work on the subject.