Unfortunately Poland profited little or nothing by this great triumph, and now that she had broken the back of the enemy she was left to fight the common enemy in the Ukraine with whatever assistance she could obtain from the unwilling and unready Muscovites.
The hornbeam is prevalent in the Ukraine, and the maple begins to appear in the S.
In the first part of its course, which may be said to end at Dorogobuzh, it flows through an undulating country of Carboniferous formation; in the second it passes west to Orsha, south through the fertile plain of Chernigov and Kiev, and then southeast across the rocky steppe of the Ukraine to Ekaterinoslay.
Throughout the Ukraine the Polish gentry were hunted down, flayed and burnt alive, blinded and sawn asunder.
By this time, however, the state of things in the Ukraine was so alarming that the new king had to hasten to the front.
They first entered Poland from Germany during the era of the crusades, and soon spread through Lithuania, Courland, the Ukraine, and, in the 18th century, Bessarabia.
Roughly speaking, Little Russia, otherwise called the Ukraine, may be described as the basin of the Dnieper southward of the 51st parallel of latitude.
Somewhat later he was created a count, and appointed commander-in-chief and governor-general of "New Russia," as the conquered provinces in the Ukraine were then called.
Dissensions among the Cossacks led to the recognition by Turkey of Doroshenko, the hetman of the Sari Kamish, as ruler of the Ukraine; the Zaporog Cossacks, his antagonists, applied for aid to Russia.
However, Michael Wiesnowiecki, king of Poland, considering the Ukraine as under his protection, sought to intervene, with the result that Turkey declared war against him (1672).
18, 1672) whereby Podolia was ceded to Turkey, the Ukraine was left to the Cossacks, and Poland agreed to pay to Turkey an annual tribute of 22,000 sequins.
Doroshenko now deserted the Turkish alliance for the Russian; in consequence an expedition was sent into the Ukraine which was both costly and useless.
The main provisions of these were, that Turkey retained the Banat, while Austria kept Transylvania; Poland restored the places captured in Moldavia, but retained Kamenets, Podolia and the Ukraine; Venice restored her conquests north of Corinth, but kept those in the Morea and Dalmatia.
Till the 13th century the Crimea was known to European travellers as Gazaria; the "ramparts of the Khazars" are still distinguished in the Ukraine; and the record of their dominion survives in the names of Kazarek, Kazaritshi, Kazarinovod, Kozar-owka, Kozari, and perhaps in Kazan.
Owing to its situation on the highway from Moldavia to the Ukraine, at the passage across the Dnieper, it developed rapidly.
Similarly the Ruthenians demanded that East Galicia should be erected into a separate Crown land under the name of the Ukraine (March 3).
19 the Ukraine National Council was set up in Lemberg, and the Slovene-Croat in Agram; on Oct.
In 1676 he was sent to the Ukraine to keep in order the Crimean Tatars and took part in the Chigirin campaign.
But these measures proved inadequate, and in 1533 the lord marcher, Ostafi Daszkiewicz, the hero of Kaniev, which he had successfully defended against a countless host of Turks and Tatars, was consulted by the diet as to the best way of defending the Ukraine permanently against such inroads.
So nothing at all was done officially, and the defence of the eastern Ukraine was left to providence.
The rank and file of the Tatar soldiery were known as Kazaki, or Cossacks, a word meaning "freebooters," and this term came to be applied indiscriminately to all the free dwellers in the Ukraine, or border-lands.
Such was the condition of affairs in the Ukraine when Wladislaus IV.
Proposed to make the Cossacks the pivot of his foreign policy and his domestic reforms. His far-reaching plans were based upon two facts, the absolute devotion of the Zaporozhians to himself personally, and the knowledge, secretly conveyed to him by Stanislaus Koniecpolski, that the whole of the Ukraine was in a ferment.
Throughout the Ukraine the gentry were hunted down, flayed, burnt, blinded and sawn asunder.
For the next eighteen months Chmielnicki ruled the Ukraine like a sovereign prince.
In 1699 the long Turkish War, which had been going on ever since 1683, was concluded by the peace of Karlowitz, whereby Podolia, the Ukraine and the fortress of Kamenets Podolskiy were retroceded to the Republic by the Ottoman Porte.
The Potoccy, whose possessions in south Poland and the Ukraine covered thousands of square miles, the Radziwillowie, who were omnipotent in Lithuania and included half a dozen millionaires`' amongst them, the Lubomirscy and their fellows, hated the Czartoryscy because they were too eminent, and successfully obstructed all their well-meant efforts.
This shameful surrender led to a Catholic patriotic uprising, known as the Confederation of Bar, which was formed on the 29th of February 1768, at Bar in the Ukraine, by a handful of small squires.
The constitution of the 3rd of May had scarce been signed when Felix Potocki, Severin Rzewuski and Xavier Branicki, three of the chief dignitaries of Poland, hastened to St Petersburg, and there entered into a secret convention with the empress, whereby she undertook to restore the old constitution by force of arms, but at the same time promised to respect the territorial integrity of the Republic. On the 14th of May 1792 the conspirators formed a confederation, consisting, in the first instance, of only ten other persons, at the little town of Targowica in the Ukraine, protesting against the constitution of the 3rd of May as tyrannous and revolutionary, and at the same time the new Russian minister at Warsaw presented a formal declaration of war to the king and the diet.
A further development of romanticism was the so-called Ukraine school of poets, such as Malczewski, Goszczynski, and Zaleski.
Other poets of the so-called Ukraine school, which has been so well inspired by the romantic legends of that part of Russia, are Thomas or Timko Padoura (who also wrote in the Malo-Russian, or Little-Russian, language), Alexander Groza, and Thomas Olizarowski.
Bogdan Joseph Zaleski was born in 1802 in the Ukraine village, Bohaterka.
Michael Grabowski (1805-1863) belongs also to this school by his fine Melodies of the Ukraine (1828).
Among the very numerous writers of romances may be mentioned Henry Rzewuski (1791-1866); Joseph Dzierzkowski wrote novels on aristocratic life, and Michael Czajkowski (1808-1876) romances of the Ukraine; Valerius Wieloglowski (1865) gave pictures of country life.
In 1625 he was appointed guardian of the Ukraine against the Tatars, but in 1626 was transferred to Prussia to check the victorious advance of Gustavus Adolphus.
To keep the Cossacks of the Ukraine in order he also built the fortress of Kudak.
As one of the largest proprietors in the Ukraine he suffered severely from Cossack depredations and offered many concessions to them.
For the next few years he defended the Ukraine against the Tatars and Cossacks, and in 1617 was involved in a war with the Porte owing to the unauthorized interference of the Polish nobles in the affairs of Wallachia and Moldavia.
From the Ukraine he was transferred to the Baltic Provinces and was made the first governor-general of Riga after its capture in 1710.
In 1738-1744 the disease was in the Ukraine, Hungary, the borders of Carniola, Moravia and Austria, extending along the Carpathians as far as Poland (20° E.), and also in Bukowina (25° E.).
It affected also Transylvania and part of Hungary, and still more severely Poland, but was confined to Podolia, Volhynia, the Ukraine and east Galicia (5° E.), not even penetrating as far as Warsaw.
Cherkasy was an important town of the Ukraine in the 15th century, and remained so, under Polish rule, until the revolt of the Cossack hetman Chmielnicki (1648).
It is from these falls that the Cossacks of the Ukraine came to be known as Zaporogian Cossacks.
It was annexed to Russia along with the rest of the Ukraine in 1778.
The Cossacks of the Ukraine, who kept it, revolted against their Polish rulers about 1665, and sustained a fierce siege.
BOGDAN CHMIELNICKI (c. 1593-1657), hetman of the Cossacks, son of Michael Chmielnicki, was born at Subatow, near Chigirin in the Ukraine, an estate given to the elder Chmielnicki for his lifelong services to the Polish crown.
On returning to the Ukraine he settled down quietly on his paternal estate, and in all probability history would never have known his name if the intolerable persecution of a neighbouring Polish squire, who stole his hayricks and flogged his infant son to death, had not converted the thrifty and acquisitive Cossack husbandman into one of the most striking and sinister figures of modern times.
The king, perceiving him to be a man of some education and intelligence, appointed him pisarz or secretary of the registered Cossacks, and he subsequently served under Koniecpolski in the Ukraine campaign of 1646.
9 At Zheltnaya Vodui (Yellow Waters) in the Ukraine he annihilated, on the 19th of May, a detached Polish army corps after three days' desperate fighting, and on the 26th routed the main Polish army under the grand hetman, Stephen Potocki, at Kruta Balka (Hard Plank), near the river Korsun.
For the next eighteen months he was the absolute master of the Ukraine, which he divided into sixteen provinces, made his native place Chigirin the Cossack capital, and entered into direct relations with foreign powers.
In 1653 Poland made a supreme effort, the diet voted 17,000,000 gulden in subsidies, and John Casimir led an army of 60,000 men into the Ukraine and defeated the arch-rebel at Zranta, whereupon Chmielnicki took the oath of allegiance to the tsar (compact of Pereyaslavl, February 19,1654), and all hope of an independent Cossack state was at an end.