Earlier tyrants were well pleased to be spoken of as kings; but no earlier rulers of Sicily put either their heads or their names on the coin.
And now in all the Greek cities of Aeolis and Ionia the oligarchies or tyrants friendly to Persia fell, and democracies were established under the eye of Alexander's officers.
The nobility of France, keeping the most oppressive social and personal privileges, had been shorn of all political and even administrative power; the tyrants of the people were the slaves of the king.
He first asserted his power by literally throwing to the dogs the last of his boyar tyrants, and shortly afterwards announced his intention of assuming the title of tsar, a title which his father and grandfather had coveted but never dared to assume publicly.
All tyrants in the world look at with fear," and as one directly ordained by God.
After the commencement of the 14th century, the civil wars decreased in fury, and at the same time it was perceived that their effect had been to confirm tyrants in their grasp upon free cities.
Henry established imperial vicars in the Lombard towns, confirming the tyrants, but gaining nothing for the empire in exchange for the titles he conferred.
The tyrants, as we have already seen, established themselves as captains of the people, vicars of the empire, vicars for the church, leaders of the Guelph and Ghibelline parties.
Francesco Sforza was the only condottiero among many aspiring to be tyrants who planted themselves firmly on a throne of firstrate importance.
He was honoured as a hero, and his memory was held in such respect that when all the brazen statues of tyrants were condemned to be sold in the time of Timoleon (150 years later) an exemption was made in favour of the statue of Gelo.
Plutarch's statement that the Thirty Tyrants removed the bema so as to face the land instead of the sea is probably due to a misunderstanding.
The equalization of classes was already far advanced when towards the end of the century a nobleman of the Alcmaeonid family, named Cleisthenes, who had taken the chief part in the final expulsion of the tyrants, acquired ascendancy as leader of the commons.
The condition of his subjects was deplorable, and if Cesare's rule in Romagna was an improvement on that of the local tyrants, the people of Rome have seldom been more oppressed than under the Borgia.
The most stirring episode in the history of the Peiraeus is the seizure of Munychia by Thrasybulus and the exiles from Phyle, and the consequent destruction of the "30 tyrants" in 404 B.C. The three chief arsenals of the Peiraeus were named Munychia, Zea and Cantharus, and they contained galley slips for 82, 196 and 94 slips respectively in the 4th century B.C.
Popular outbreak and more bloodshed; the conspirators were put to death and Hiero's family was murdered; whilst the Carthaginian faction, under the pretence of delivering the city from its tyrants, got the upper hand and drew the citizens into open defiance of Rome.
He was succeeded by other lords or tyrants, of whom the most renowned was Castruccio Castracane, a political and military adventurer of much the same stamp as Uguccione himself.
New lords, or petty tyrants, rose to power in turn during this period of civil discord, but the military valour of the Pisans was not yet extinguished By sea they were almost impotent - Corsica and Sardinia were lost to them for ever; but they were still formidable by land.
It occupies the site of Agyrion, an ancient Sicel city which was ruled by tyrants, one of whom, Agyris, was the most powerful ruler in the centre of Sicily.
The tyrants (560-510 B.C.) left to the council its cognizance of murder cases (Demosth.
In later accounts (and even in the Odyssey) Ares' character is somewhat toned down; thus, in the "Homeric" hymn to Ares, he is addressed as the assistant of Themis (Justice), the enemy of tyrants, and leader of the just.
The old Calvinist nobility of Lithuania were speedily reconverted; a Uniate Church in connexion with Rome was established; Greek Orthodox congregations, if not generally persecuted, were at least depressed and straitened; and the Cossacks began to hate the Pans, or Polish lords, not merely as tyrants, but as heretics.
With a hypocrisy worthy of the diplomacy of "the tyrants," the committee of public safety declared that it could not support an insurrection engineered by aristocrats, and Kosciuszko returned to Leipzig empty-handed.
This struggle between spiritual and secular powers, owing to the tremendous sensation which it created throughout Christendom, showed the nations that at the head of the Church there was a great force for justice, always able to combat iniquity and oppression, and sometimes to defeat them, however powerful the evil and the tyrants might seem.
The latter, through their general Phocion, rescued it from the tyrants suborned by Philip of Macedon (354 and 341).
Byblus and Tripolis fell into the hands of " tyrants " (Strabo xvi.
Ever anxious to extend the league, in which after 245 he was general almost every second year, Aratus took Corinth by surprise (243), and with mingled threats and persuasion won over other cities, notably Megalopolis (233) and Argos (229), whose tyrants abdicated voluntarily.
To Aratus is due the credit of having made the Achaean League an effective instrument against tyrants and foreign enemies.
It appears that he had rendered valuable services to the exiles during the reign of the tyrants, and in 403 Thrasybulus proposed that these services should be recognized by the bestowal of the citizenship. The Boule, however, had not yet been reconstituted, and hence the measure could not be introduced to the ecclesia by :the requisite "preliminary resolution" (irpo,60bXevµa).
During his later years Lysias - now probably a comparatively poor man owing to the rapacity of the tyrants and his own generosity to the Athenian exiles - appears as a hard-working member of a new profession - that of writing speeches to be delivered in the law-courts.
Of these, the fragmentary speech For Pherenicus belongs to 381 or 380 B.C., and is thus the latest known work of Lysias.2 In literary and historical interest, the first place among the extant speeches of Lysias belongs to that Against Eratosthenes (403 B.C.), one of the Thirty Tyrants, whom Lysias arraigns as the murderer of his brother Polemarchus.
But Gelo, like several later tyrants of Syracuse, takes his place - and it is the redeeming point in the position of all of them - as 1 Panaetius of Leontini (608 B.C.) is said to have been the earliest tyrant in Sicily.
These sought, as a rule, to cope with the difficulty by transferring the government to individual persons who enjoyed their confidence: the tyrants of the Greek towns.
The only really brutal tyrants were Darius II., who was completely dominated by his bloodthirsty wife Parysatis, and Artaxerxes III.
But its virtual independence was established in the 7th century, when a line of tyrants arose and initiated an anti-Dorian policy.
This dynasty, known after its founder Orthagoras as the Orthagoridae, exercised a mild rule, and therefore lasted longer than any other succession of Greek tyrants (about 665-565 B.C.).
After the fall of the tyrants their institutions survived till the end of the 6th century, when the Dorian supremacy was re-established, perhaps by the agency of Sparta, and the city was enrolled in the Peloponnesian League.
His deposition by the Thebans and subsequent murder freed Sicyon for a season, but new tyrants arose with the help of Philip II.
Much has been made of his defective accounts of the tyrants and the Macedonian empire, and his opinion that Greek history ceased to be interesting or instructive after Chaeronea.
He succeeded in so far that 15,000 Kufians swore to fight with him for the maintenance of the commandments of the Book of God and the Sunna (orthodox tradition) of his Prophet, the discomfiture of the tyrants, the redress of injury, and last, not least, the vindication of the family of the Prophet as the rightful caliphs.
Tughlak, who reigned from 1325 to 1351, is described by Elphinstone as " one of the most accomplished princes and one of the most furious tyrants that ever adorned or disgraced human nature."
Tell is called "the first Confederate," and his feat is treated as the real and only reason why the Confederation was formed and the tyrants driven out of the land.
Adam of Bremen, from whom these details come, was himself uncertain whether " so many kings or rather tyrants of the Danes ruled together or succeeded one another at short intervals."