Typhoid and pulmonary diseases are common.
Cultures of the typhoid organism planted at a depth of 18 in.
Such drainage as had at one time existed was allowed to get choked up, giving rise to typhoid fever of a virulent type.
Robertson has shown that the typhoid bacillus can grow very easily in certain soils, can persist in soils through the winter months, and when the soil is artificially fed, as may be done by a leaky drain or by access of filthy water from the surface, the microorganism will take on a fresh growth in the warm season.
Epidemics of smallpox and typhoid occur; and leprosy, imported from the Orange River and Cape Colonies, has taken firm hold on the Basuto, of whom about 9r per too() are sufferers from this disease.
Louis, by his researches on pulmonary consumption and typhoid fever, had the chief merit of refuting the doctrines of Broussais.
He died in London of typhoid fever on the 27th of June 1883, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
In many cases, however, the filtrate, when injected, produces comparatively little effect, whilst toxic action is observed when the bacteria in a dead condition are used; this is the case with the organisms of tubercle, cholera, typhoid and many others.
Billings: Average Annual Death- rate per Ioo,000 Popuia- Consum ti Pneumon Typhoid Diphtheria an tion for the ciues of the p on.
It may be taken at first for almost any fever, particularly typhoid, or for venereal disease or lymphangitis.
The practical effect of the bactericidal action of solar light is the destruction of enormous quantities of germs in rivers, the atmosphere and other exposed situations, and experiments have shown that it is especially the pathogenic bacteria - anthrax, typhoid, &c. - which thus succumb to lightaction; the discovery that the electric arc is very rich in bactericidal rays led to the hope that it could be used for disinfecting purposes in hospitals, but mechanical difficulties intervene.
Thus the organisms of suppuration, tubercle, glanders, diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, tetanus, and others were identified, and their relationship to the individual diseases established.
The agglutinative action of the serum of a patient suffering from a bacterial disease, first described in the case of typhoid fever independently by Widal and by Griinbaum in 1896, though led up to by the work of Pfeiffer, Gruber and Durham and others.
Shortly afterwards Widal and also Griinbaum showed that the serum of patients suffering from typhoid fever, even at an early stage of the disease, agglutinated the typhoid bacillus - a fact which laid the foundation of serum diagnosis.
The diseases to which the act applies are smallpox, cholera, membranous croup, erysipelas, scarlatina or scarlet fever, typhus, typhoid, enteric, relapsing, continued or puerperal fever, and any other infectious disease to which the act has been applied by the local authority of the district in the prescribed manner.
In houses or hospitals where cases of the disease are under treatment, disinfectants should be freely employed, and the evacuations of the patients removed as speedily as possible, having previously been sterilized in much the same manner as is employed in typhoid fever.
The most unhealthy period is from 1st May to 31st October, when there are, from time to time, outbreaks of typhoid, small-pox, diphtheria and other epidemics.
The value of such protective inoculations is demonstrated in the treatment against small-pox (Jenner), cholera, plague (Haffkine) and typhoid (Wright and Semple).
The conditions which favour the vitality, growth and multiplication of the typhoid bacillus are the following: the soil should be pervious; it should be permeated with a sufficiency of decaying - preferably animal - organic matters; it should possess a certain amount of moisture, and be subject to a certain temperature.
These magnificent waterworks were opened in 1873, and their sanitary influence was soon felt, in the almost complete disappearance of typhoid fever, which had numerous victims before.
Cholera and typhoid organisms are less resistant, and are killed more quickly than tubercle bacilli at the above temperatures.
It is imperative that cream destined for butter-making should be free from pathogenic organisms.
The cockle is liable to the same suspicion as the oyster of conveying the contamination of typhoid fever where the shores are polluted, but as it is boiled before being eaten it is probably less dangerous.
Its geographical distribution is of the widest, and its rapidity of breeding, in manure and dooryard filth, so great that, as a carrier of germs of disease, especially cholera and typhoid, the house-fly is now recognized as a potent source of danger; and various sanitary regulations have been made, or precautions suggested, for getting rid of it.
Thus malaria and sand-fly fever, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, cholera, smallpox, and occasionally typhus fever, eye diseases, oriental sores and indeed any disease conveyed by impure water, flies, contaminated dust or the contagion of sufferers from infectious diseases, are prevalent in the inhabited places along the Persian Gulf, and precautions must always be taken to guard against them.
In December 1861, while preparations were being made for the marriage, the prince consort was struck down with typhoid fever, and died on the 14th.
Epidemic outbreaks of other diseases - for instance, cholera, diphtheria and typhoid fever - are often preceded and followed by the prevalence of mild illness of an allied type; and t he true significance of this fact is one of the most important problems in epidemiology.
In the same way sterilized cultures of typhoid bacilli have been used to protect against attacks of typhoid fever, and an anti-typhoid serum has been employed with intent to cure.
Haffkine in the case of cholera (1893) and plague (1896), and more recently by Wright and Semple in the case of typhoid fever.
Many of them, probably also of proteid nature, are much more resistant to heat; thus the intracellular toxins of the tubercle bacillus retain certain of their effects even after exposure to ioo° C. Like the extracellular toxins they may be of remarkable potency; for example, fever is produced in the human subject by the injection into the blood of an extremely minute quantity of dead typhoid bacilli.
In this way secondary abscesses, secondary tubercle glanders and nodules, &c., result; in typhoid fever there is secondary invasion of the mesenteric glands, and clumps of bacilli are also found in internal organs, especially the spleen, though there may be little tissue change around them.
Externally it is antiparasitic, and is used in certain stages of eczema and psoriasis, and the alcoholic solution has been used in ringworm; internally it has been employed as an intestinal antiseptic in typhoid fever.
Even yet medical science has not determined the effect upon the human system of water highly charged with bacteria which are not known to be individually pathogenic. In the case of the bacilli of typhoid and cholera, we know the direct effect; but apart altogether from the presence of such specific poisons, polluted water is undoubtedly injurious.
We are indebted to the Local Government Board for having traced to such causes certain epidemics of typhoid, and there can be no manner of doubt that the evil has been very general.
Urotropin is very valuable in sterilizing the urine of patients who have suffered from typhoid fever and thus preventing the spread of the disease by what are known as "typhoid carriers."
A civil war would probably have broken out between them; but Philip, who had only been in Spain long enough to prove his incapacity, died suddenly at Burgos, apparently of typhoid fever, on the 25th of September 1506.
Sir Charles Cameron attributes the prevalence of typhoid in certain areas in Dublin to the soil becoming saturated with faecal matter and specifically infected.