At his Tuscan villa near Tifernum Tiberinum (iv.
On the 26th of January the grand-duke issued a circular letter to the Tuscan bishops suggesting certain reforms, especially in the matter of the restoration of the authority of diocesan synods, the purging of the missals and breviaries of legends, the assertion of episcopal as against papal authority, the curtailing of the privileges of the monastic orders, and the better education of the clergy.
These decrees were issued together with a pastoral letter of Bishop de' Ricci, and were warmly approved by the grand-duke, at whose instance a national synod of the Tuscan bishops met at Florence on the 23rd of April 1787.
In 1848 Montanelli served with the Tuscan student volunteers at the battle of Curtatone, where he was wounded and taken prisoner by the Austrians.
The Savio is the only other stream of any importance which has always flowed directly into the Adriatic from this side of the Tuscan Apennines.
The Arno, which has its source in the Monte Falterona, one of the most elevated summits of the main chain of the Tuscan Apennines, flows nearly south till in the neighborhood of Arezzo it turns abruptly north-west, and pursues that course as far as Pontassieve, where it again makes a sudden bend to the west, and pursues a westerly course thence to the sea, passing through Florence and Pisa.
Oats, cultivated in the Roman and Tuscan maremma and in Apulia, are used almost exclusively for horses and cattle.
The Tuscan oils from Lucca, Calci and Buti are considered the best in the world; those of Ban, Umbria and western Liguria rank next.
Wilder varieties roam in vast herds over the Tuscan and Roman maremmas, and the corresponding districts in Apulia and other regions.
In the fe~ cases of mezzadria the Tuscan system is followed.
Anchovy and sardine fishing (the products of which are reckoned among the general total) are also of considerable importance, especially along the Ligurian and Tuscan coasts.
At that time four limited companies were authorized to issue bank notes, namely, the National Bank, the National Bank of Tuscany, the Roman Bank and the Tuscan Credit Bank; and two banking corporations, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily.
Their appointment, according to notions which defined themselves within the church at this epoch, was simoniacal; and during the long minority of Henry IV., who succeeded his father in 1056, the terrible Tuscan monk, Hildebrand of Soana, forged weapons which he used with deadly effect against the presumption of the empire.
She was the last heiress of the great house of Canossa, whose fiefs stretched from Mantua across Lombardy, passed the Apennines, included the Tuscan plains, and embraced a portion of the duchy of Spoleto.
From the Tuscan league Pisa, consistently Ghibelline, stood aloof.
Can Grande della Scalas death in the next year inflicted on, the Lombard Ghibellines a loss hardly inferior to that of Castruccios on their Tuscan allies.
Florenc reassumed her Tuscan hegemony.
They fought the battles of the republic with success against the Visconti, and widely extended the Florentine domain over the Tuscan cities.
Tuscany and Naples had both joined the Italian league; a Tuscan army started for Lombardy on the 3oth of April, and 17,000 Neapolitans commanded by Pepe (who had returned after 28 years of exile) went to assist Durando in intercepting the Austrian reinforce1irnts under Nugent.
A force of Tuscan volunteers was attacked by a superior body of Austrians at Curtatone and Montanaro and defeated after a gallant resistance on the 27th of May; Charles Albert, after wasting precious time round Peschiera, which capitulated on the 3oth of May, defeated Radetzky at Goito.
His forces amounted to 80,000 men, including a Lombard corps and some Roman, Tuscan and other volunteers.
On the 23rd of May Prince Napoleon, with a French army corps, landed at Leghorn, his avowed object being to threaten the Austrian flank; and in June these troops, together with a Tuscan contingent, departed for Lombardy.
Sella, uncertain of the loyalty of the Right, challenged a vote on the immediate discussion of further financial reforms, and on the 23rd of June was overthrown by a coalition of the Left under Depretis with a part of the Right under Minghetti and the Tuscan Centre under Correnti.
On his own initiative he conducted exhaustive inquiries into the conditions of the Sicilian peasants and of the Tuscan metayers, and in 1877 published in co-operation with Signor Leopoldo Franchetti a masterly work on Sicily (La Sicilia, Florence, 1877).
BARBERINI, the name of a powerful Italian family, originally of Tuscan extraction, who settled in Florence during the early part of the 11th century.
In 1387 fresh quarrels with Florence on the subject of Montepulciano led to an open war, that was further aggravated by the interference in Tuscan affairs of the ambitious duke of Milan, Gian Galeazzo Visconti.
In 1859 Siena was the first Tuscan city that voted for annexation to Piedmont and the monarchy of Victor Emmanuel II., this decision (voted 26th June) being the initial step towards the unity of Italy.
The most valuable straw for plaits is grown in Tuscany, and from it the well-known Tuscan plaits and Leghorn hats are made.
The straw of Tuscany, specially grown for plaiting, is distinguished into three qualities - Pontederas Semone being the finest, Mazzuolo the second quality, from which the bulk of the plaits are made, while from the third quality, Santa Fioro, only "Tuscan pedals" and braids are plaited.
Tuscan plaits and hats vary enormously in quality and value; the plait of a hat of good quality may represent the work of four or five days, while hats of the highest quality may each occupy six to nine months in making.
In the Accademia, which is rich in early Tuscan masters, the Botticelli and Perugino rooms deserve special mention.
Bonifacio was founded about 828 by the Tuscan marquis whose name it bears, as a defence against the Saracen pirates.
While still a boy he accompanied his father to Florence, and there acquired a love for that Tuscan form of speech which he afterwards cultivated in preference to the dialect of his native city.
Guido of Citta di Castello (Tiferno), born of noble Tuscan family, able and learned, studied under Abelard and became a cardinal priest.
In 1856 he was elected member of the Accademia della Crusca, in which capacity he took part in the compilation of its famous but still unfinished dictionary, and two years later was appointed assistant keeper of the Tuscan archives, in Florence; then he took charge of the famous Medici archives, whence he collected a vast body of material on the history of Italian art, not all of which is yet published.
At the papal order there arose the Ponte Sisto, the hospital of San Spirito, Santa Maria del popolo, Santa Maria della pace, and finally the Sistine Chapel, for the decoration of which the most famous Tuscan and Umbrian artists were summoned to Rome.
Other important firms, Tuscan wine-growers, oil-growers, timber traders, colour manufacturers, &c., have their head offices and stores at Leghorn, with a view to export.
His Humid brethren went so far as to expel him for a time from the society - the chief ground of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the "Arameans," a party of the academicians who maintained that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. He was readmitted in 1566, when his friend Salviati was "consul" of the academy.
Il Lasca ranks as one of the great masters of Tuscan prose.
The cathedral of St Stephen was begun in the 12th century in the Tuscan Romanesque style; to this period belongs the narrow nave with its wide arches; the raised transepts and the chapels were added by Giovanni Pisano in 1317-1320; the campanile dates from 1340 (it is a much smaller and less elaborate version of Giotto's campanile at Florence), while the façade, also of alternate white sandstone and green serpentine, belongs to 1413.
At the same time his paternal despotism tended to emasculate the Tuscan character.
Begun by the Countess Matilda of Tuscany in 1099, after the designs of Lanfranc, and consecrated in 1184, the Romanesque cathedral (S Geminiano) is a low but handsome building, with a lofty crypt, under the choir (characteristic of the Tuscan Romanesque architecture), three eastern apses, and a façade still preserving some curious sculptures of the 12th century.