The timbers in the second class are obtained from non-coniferous trees, containing no turpentine or resin, and are given the general name of hard woods.
The timber of this pine is indifferent, but the forests of it are of importance from the quantity of turpentine they yield; the trees also furnish much firewood of good quality.
Lubarsch succeeded in inducing it merely by the subcutaneous injection of turpentine, which produces its result, it is said, by exciting an abscess.
The leased convicts are employed in the turpentine and lumber industries and in the phosphate works.
Several creeks and the upper Cape Fear river furnish considerable waterpower, and in or near Fayetteville are manufactories of cotton goods, silk, lumber, wooden-ware, turpentine, carriages, wagons, ploughs, edge tools and flour.
Pine stumps and waste limbs are utilized, notably at Hattiesburg, for the manufacture of charcoal, tar, creosote, turpentine, &c. Fisheries Fishing is a minor industry, confined for the most part to the Mississippi Sound and neighbouring waters and to the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers.
In some localities, especially in the " Florida parishes," small quantities of rosin and turpentine are taken from the long-leaf pine, but this industry was unimportant in Louisiana before 1908.
It thus possesses the same composition as the hydrocarbon of gutta-percha and as that of oil of turpentine and other terpenes which are the chief components of essential oils.
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.
Nowak, however, found later that he could generate it where the turpentine failed to induce suppuration; he believes that it may arise quite apart from the influence of the organisms of suppuration, that it is not a biological product of the micro-organisms of disease, and also that it has nothing to do with emaciation.
The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."
Moulds for reproducing plates or art-work are often taken in plaster, beeswax mixed with Venice turpentine, fusible metal, or guttapercha, and the surface being rendered conductive by powdered black-lead, copper is deposited upon it evenly throughout.
Lampblack is prepared by burning tar, resin, turpentine and other substances rich in carbon, with a limited supply of air; the products of combustion being conducted into condensing chambers in which cloths are suspended, on which the carbon collects.
By studying the dispersion of colours in water, turpentine and crown glass Newton was led to suppose that dispersion is proportional to refraction.
In the decade 1890-1900 the number of turpentine factories increased from 7 to 152, and their product in 1900 and in 1905 ranked Alabama third among the states in that industry.
The value of the turpentine and rosin products in 1905 was $2,434,365.
In Tirol, a single hole is made near the root of the tree in the spring; this is stopped with a plug, and the turpentine is removed by a scoop in the autumn; but each tree yields only from a few ounces to z lb by this process.
Real larch turpentine is a thick tenacious fluid, of a deep yellow colour, and nearly transparent; it does not harden by time; it contains 15% of the essential oil of turpentine, also resin, succinic, pinic and sylvic acids, and a bitter extractive matter.
According to Pereira, much sold under the name of Venice turpentine is a mixture of common resin and oil of turpentine.
Other subjects on which he published papers were the inflammation of turpentine and other essential oils by nitric acid, and the methods of embalmment practised by the Egyptians.
A process devised by him for the manufacture of illuminating gas from turpentine and resin was in use in New York for a time.
It is found in Kumaon and Bhotan and on some of the Nepal ranges, but does not grow in the moist climate of the Sikkim Himalayas; it is found at a height of 7000 to 12,000 ft., and attains large dimensions; the wood is highly resinous, and is said to be durable; great quantities of a white clear turpentine exude from the branches when injured.
In subsequent receipts saltpetre and turpentine make their appearance, and the modern "carcass composition," containing sulphur, tallow, rosin, turpentine, saltpetre and crude antimony, is a representative of the same class of mixtures, which became known to the Crusaders as Greek fire but were more usually called wildfire.
It is a dark red microcrystalline powder, insoluble in carbon bisulphide, oil of turpentine, &c., and having a density of 2.2.
TURPENTINE (in M.
7-epE31,vOos or -rEpµcvOos), the oleo-resins which exude from certain trees, especially from some conifers such as Pinus sylvestris - and from the terebinth tree, Pistacia terebinthus, It was to the product of the latter, now known as Chian turpentine, that the term was first applied.
Chian turpentine is a tenacious semi-fluid transparent body, yellow to dull brown in colour, with an agreeable resinous odour and little taste.
In their natural characters, turpentines are soft solids or semi-fluid bodies, consisting of resins dissolved in turpentine oil, the chief constituent of which is pinene.
The same authorities recommend a powder, composed of larvicide (an aniline substance), chrysanthemum flowers, and valerian root, to be burnt in bedrooms. Anointing the skin with strong-smelling substances is of little use in the open air, but more effective in the house; turpentine appears to be the best.
Soaking the seed in strong-smelling substances, such as paraffin and turpentine, has been found efficacious, and in some districts paraffin sprayed over the seedlings has been practised with decided success.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
Crude or common turpentine is the commercial name which embraces the oleo-resin yielded by several coniferous trees, both European and American.
The principal European product, sometimes distinguished as Bordeaux turpentine, is obtained from the cluster pine, Pinus Pinaster, in the Landes department of France.
Crude turpentine is further yielded by the Scotch fir, P. sylvestris, throughout northern Europe, and by the Corsican pine, P. Laricio, in Austria and Corsica.
Venice turpentine is yielded by the larch tree, Larix europaea, from which it is collected principally in Tirol.
Strassburg turpentine is obtained from the bark of the silver fir; but it is collected only in small quantities.
Oil of Turpentine, or Turps, as a commercial product is obtained from all or any of these oleo-resins, but on a large scale only from crude or common turpentine.
Certain of these oils consist very largely of hydrocarbons; for example, those of turpentine, citron, thyme, orange, pine-needle, goldenrod (from Solidago canadensis) and cypress, while others contain as their chief constituents various alcoholic and ketonic substances.
This oil is closely allied in composition to oil of turpentine and is given in doses of a half to three minims. The Spiritus juniperi of the British pharma copoeia is given in doses up to one drachm.
Many occur in nature in the free state: for example, natural gas, petroleum and paraffin are entirely composed of such bodies; other natural sources are india-rubber, turpentine and certain essential oils.
Much damage is often caused by species of Peridermium, which often invade the cortex and cambium to such an extent as to " ring " the stem or branch, or to cause an abnormal formation of turpentine which soaks into the wood and stops the upward passage of water; this causes the parts above the diseased area to perish.
Large quantities of turpentine are extracted from this pine in Sweden and Russia by removing a strip of bark, terminating below in a deep notch cut in the wood, into which the turpentine runs, and from which it is scooped as it accumulates; but the product is not equal to that of the silver fir and other species.