In many places turnips and clover were still unknown or ignored.
Turnips are grown principally in the central provinces as an alternative crop to wheat.
Forage Crops.The mangold-wurzel, occupying four times the acreage of swedes and turnips, is by far the chief root-crop in France.
Frank has claimed to have found oats, buckbeans, spurry, turnips, mustard, potatoes and Norway maples exercising it; Nobbe and others have imputed its possession to Elaeagnus.
Plcotrachelus causes the invaded Pilobolus to swell up, and changes the whole course of its cell metabolism, and similarly with Plasmodiophora in the roots of turnips, and many other cases.
Those on turnips and other Cruciferae are due to the infection of Plasmodiophora, a dangerously parasitic Myxomycete.
Crops, chiefly barley, rye, oats, turnips and green crops, are, however, grown on clearings in the forest, though the yield is poor.
Farther south, heavy crops of wheat, turnips and other cereals and green crops are not uncommon, while barley is cultivated about Repton and Gresley, and also in the east of the county, in order to supply the Burton breweries.
Carrots, cabbages, turnips and rape, not yet cultivated in the fields, are mentioned among the herbs and roots for the kitchen.
Weston was ambassador from England to the elector palatine in 1619, and had the merit of being the first who introduced the great clover, as it was then called, into English agriculture, about 1652, and probably turnips also.
In the first edition of the Improver Improved no mention is made of clover, nor in the second of turnips, but in the third, clover is treated of at some length, and turnips are recommended as an excellent cattle crop, the culture of which should be extended from the kitchen garden to the field.
Sir Richard Weston must have cultivated turnips before this; for Blith says that Sir Richard affirmed to himself that he fed his swine with them.
Clover and turnips were confined to a few districts, and at the latter period were scarcely cultivated at all by common farmers in the northern part of the island.
In John Houghton's Collections on Husbandry and Trade, a periodical work begun in 1681, there is one of the earliest notices of turnips being eaten by sheep:" Some in Essex have their fallow after turnips, which feed their sheep in winter, by which means the turnips are scooped, and so made capable to hold dews and rain water, which, by corrupting,; _ mbibes the nitre of the air, and when the shell breaks it runs about and fertilizes.
By feeding the sheep, the land is dunged as if it had been folded; and those turnips, though few or none be carried off for human use, are a very excellent improvement, nay, some reckon it so, though they only plough the turnips in without feeding."
Ten years before, John Worlidge, one of his correspondents, and the author of the Systema Agriculturae (1669), observes, " Sheep fatten very well on turnips, which prove an excellent nourishment for them in hard winters when fodder is scarce; for they will not only eat the greens, but feed on the roots in the ground, and scoop them hollow even to the very skin.
Ten acres (he adds) sown with clover, turnips, &c., will feed as many sheep as one hundred acres thereof would before have done."
Turnips were hand-hoed and extensively employed in feeding sheep and cattle.
Townshend's belief in the growing of turnips gained him the nickname of " Turnip Townshend."
John, 2nd earl of Stair, one of their most active members, is said to have been the first who cultivated turnips in that country.
It is evident from this book that the society had exerted itself with success in introducing cultivated herbage and turnips, as well as in improving the former methods of culture.
Green crops, such as turnips, clover and rye grass, began to be alternated with grain crops, whence the name alternate husbandry.
Dawson of Frogden in Roxburghshire is believed to have been the first who grew turnips as a field crop to any extent.
It is on record that as early as 1764 he had loo acres of drilled turnips on his farm in one year.
The hot drought of 1893 extended over the spring and summer months, but there was an abundant rainfall in the autumn; correspondingly there was an unprecedentedly bad yield of corn and hay crops, but a moderately fair yield of the main root crops (turnips and swedes).
In 1899 the drought became most intense in the autumn after the corn crops had been harvested, but during the chief period, of growth of the root crops; correspondingly the corn crops of that year rank very well amongst the crops of the decade, but the yield of turnips and swedes was the worst on record.
1,236,768 Turnips and swedes.
No very great reliance can be placed upon the figures relating to turnips (which include swedes), as these are mostly fed to sheep on the ground, so that the estimates as to yield are necessarily vague.
The effects of a prolonged autumn drought, as distinguished from spring and summer drought, are shown in the very low yield of turnips in 1899.
Mangels are sown earlier and have a longer period of growth than turnips; if they become well established in the summer they are less susceptible to autumn drought.
The mean values at the foot of the table-they are not, strictly speaking, exact averages-indicate the average yields per acre in the United Kingdom to be about 31 bushels of wheat, 33 bushels of barley, 40 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of beans, 26 bushels of peas, 44 tons of potatoes, 134 tons of turnips and swedes, 184 tons of mangels, 32 cwt.
The chief crops grown for early supplies, or " primeurs " as they are called, are special varieties of cos and cabbage lettuces, short carrots, radishes, turnips, cauliflowers, endives, spinach, onions, corn salad and celery.
Sow carrots, turnips, early celery, also aubergines or egg-plants, capsicums, tomatoes and successional crops of kidney-beans; cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, in gentle heat, to be afterwards planted out.
For turnips bone manure is invaluable.
Of the flora of Tibet Rockhill writes: " In the ` hot lands ' (Tsa-rong) in southern and south-eastern Tibet, extending even to Batang, peaches, apricots, apples, plums, grapes, water-melons, &c., and even pomegranates, are raised; most of Tibet only produces a few varieties of vegetables, such as potatoes, turnips, beans, cabbages, onions, &c. The principal cereals raised are barley and buckwheat, wheat in small quantities, and a little oats.
Potatoes, hemp, turnips, hops, tobacco and beet are also extensively grown, the latter, in connexion with the sugar industry, showing each year a larger return.
Practically the only grain crops that are cultivated are oats (which greatly predominate) and barley, while the favoured root crops are turnips (much the most extensively grown) and potatoes.
There is a comparatively small export, except in the case of turnips and potatoes and of vegetables which have been canned or dried.
Besides potatoes, which thrive well and yield large quantities of excellent quality, there are turnips, carrots, parsnips and beets.
Throughout other parts bullocks are fed on pasture land, and also in stables on nourishing and succulent feed such as hay, Indian corn fodder, Indian corn silage, turnips, carrots, mangels, ground oats, barley, peas, Indian corn, rye, bran and linseed oil cake.
In spring the chaffinch is destructive to early flowers, and to young radishes and turnips just as they appear above the surface; in summer, however, it feeds principally on insects and their larvae, while in autumn and winter its food consists of grain and other seeds.
Potatoes and turnips are the only root crops that succeed, and barley and oats are grown in some of the islands.