In many places turnips and clover were still unknown or ignored.
Turnips are grown principally in the central provinces as an alternative crop to wheat.
The cereal crops (wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize); the cruciferous crops (turnips, cabbage, kale, rape, mustard); the solanaceous crops (potatoes); the chenopodiaceous crops (mangels, sugar-beets), and other non-leguminous crops have, so far as is known, no such power, and are therefore more or less benefited by the direct application of nitrogenous manures.
Forage Crops.The mangold-wurzel, occupying four times the acreage of swedes and turnips, is by far the chief root-crop in France.
Frank has claimed to have found oats, buckbeans, spurry, turnips, mustard, potatoes and Norway maples exercising it; Nobbe and others have imputed its possession to Elaeagnus.
Plcotrachelus causes the invaded Pilobolus to swell up, and changes the whole course of its cell metabolism, and similarly with Plasmodiophora in the roots of turnips, and many other cases.
Those on turnips and other Cruciferae are due to the infection of Plasmodiophora, a dangerously parasitic Myxomycete.
Crops, chiefly barley, rye, oats, turnips and green crops, are, however, grown on clearings in the forest, though the yield is poor.
Farther south, heavy crops of wheat, turnips and other cereals and green crops are not uncommon, while barley is cultivated about Repton and Gresley, and also in the east of the county, in order to supply the Burton breweries.
Carrots, cabbages, turnips and rape, not yet cultivated in the fields, are mentioned among the herbs and roots for the kitchen.
Weston was ambassador from England to the elector palatine in 1619, and had the merit of being the first who introduced the great clover, as it was then called, into English agriculture, about 1652, and probably turnips also.
In the first edition of the Improver Improved no mention is made of clover, nor in the second of turnips, but in the third, clover is treated of at some length, and turnips are recommended as an excellent cattle crop, the culture of which should be extended from the kitchen garden to the field.
Sir Richard Weston must have cultivated turnips before this; for Blith says that Sir Richard affirmed to himself that he fed his swine with them.
Clover and turnips were confined to a few districts, and at the latter period were scarcely cultivated at all by common farmers in the northern part of the island.
In John Houghton's Collections on Husbandry and Trade, a periodical work begun in 1681, there is one of the earliest notices of turnips being eaten by sheep:" Some in Essex have their fallow after turnips, which feed their sheep in winter, by which means the turnips are scooped, and so made capable to hold dews and rain water, which, by corrupting,; _ mbibes the nitre of the air, and when the shell breaks it runs about and fertilizes.
By feeding the sheep, the land is dunged as if it had been folded; and those turnips, though few or none be carried off for human use, are a very excellent improvement, nay, some reckon it so, though they only plough the turnips in without feeding."
Ten years before, John Worlidge, one of his correspondents, and the author of the Systema Agriculturae (1669), observes, " Sheep fatten very well on turnips, which prove an excellent nourishment for them in hard winters when fodder is scarce; for they will not only eat the greens, but feed on the roots in the ground, and scoop them hollow even to the very skin.
Ten acres (he adds) sown with clover, turnips, &c., will feed as many sheep as one hundred acres thereof would before have done."
Turnips were hand-hoed and extensively employed in feeding sheep and cattle.
Townshend's belief in the growing of turnips gained him the nickname of " Turnip Townshend."
John, 2nd earl of Stair, one of their most active members, is said to have been the first who cultivated turnips in that country.
It is evident from this book that the society had exerted itself with success in introducing cultivated herbage and turnips, as well as in improving the former methods of culture.
Green crops, such as turnips, clover and rye grass, began to be alternated with grain crops, whence the name alternate husbandry.
Dawson of Frogden in Roxburghshire is believed to have been the first who grew turnips as a field crop to any extent.
It is on record that as early as 1764 he had loo acres of drilled turnips on his farm in one year.
The hot drought of 1893 extended over the spring and summer months, but there was an abundant rainfall in the autumn; correspondingly there was an unprecedentedly bad yield of corn and hay crops, but a moderately fair yield of the main root crops (turnips and swedes).
1,236,768 Turnips and swedes.
No very great reliance can be placed upon the figures relating to turnips (which include swedes), as these are mostly fed to sheep on the ground, so that the estimates as to yield are necessarily vague.
The effects of a prolonged autumn drought, as distinguished from spring and summer drought, are shown in the very low yield of turnips in 1899.
Mangels are sown earlier and have a longer period of growth than turnips; if they become well established in the summer they are less susceptible to autumn drought.
The mean values at the foot of the table-they are not, strictly speaking, exact averages-indicate the average yields per acre in the United Kingdom to be about 31 bushels of wheat, 33 bushels of barley, 40 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of beans, 26 bushels of peas, 44 tons of potatoes, 134 tons of turnips and swedes, 184 tons of mangels, 32 cwt.
Are sometimes grown, amounting occasionally to loo tons per acre, the general average yield of 184 tons is about 5 tons more than that of turnips and swedes.
- Experiments upon root-crops--chiefly white turnips, Swedish turnips (swedes) and mangels - have resulted in the establishment of the following conclusions.
The cleaning process is carried on through the next summer by means of successive hoeings of the spring-sown root-crop. As turnips or swedes May occupy the ground till after Christmas little time is left for the preparation of a seed-bed for barley, but as the latter is a shallow-rooted crop only surface-stirring is required.
A B In Great Britain the flea beetles (Halticidae) are one of the most serious enemies; one of these, the turnip flea (Phyllotreta nemorum), has in some years, notably 1881, caused more than 500,00o loss in England and Scotland alone by eating the young seedling turnips, cabbage and other Cruciferae.
About one-sixth of the total area is under cultivation, oats and barley being the chief grain, and potatoes (introduced in 1730) and turnips (1807) the chief green crops.
Broccoli and radishes grow well, turnips (but not every year), lettuce and chervil succeed sometimes, but parsley cannot be reared.
In the south, in the Julianehaab district, even flowering plants, such as aster, nemophilia and mignonette, are cultivated, and broccoli, spinach, sorrel, chervil, parsley, rhubarb, turnips, lettuce, radishes grow well.
In the lowland districts good crops of maize, wheat, barley, oats and rye, as well as of turnips and potatoes, are obtained.
When wheat, barley, turnips and similar plants are grown, the soil upon which they are cultivated becomes depleted of its nitrogen; yet after a crop of clover or other leguminous plants the soil is found to be richer in nitrogen than it was before the crop was grown.
Liming tends to produce earlier crops and destroys the fungus which causes finger-and-toe or club-root among turnips and cabbages.
Their food consists of meat, chiefly pork, turnips, rice, barley-meal and tea made from the brick-tea of China.
Around the cottages in the mountains the land is cleared for cultivation, and produces thriving crops of barley, wheat, buckwheat, millet, mustard, chillies, etc. Turnips of excellent quality are extensively grown; they are free from fibre and remarkably sweet.
2 is in ordinary use for hoeing between two lines of beans or turnips or other "roots."
In most rotations barley is grown after turnips, or some other " cleaning " crop, with or without the interposition of a wheat crop. The roots are fed off by sheep during autumn and early winter, after which the ground is ploughed to a depth of 3 or 4 in.
The smaller size of the flocks and the breeding of sheep for meat rather than for wool, the cultivation of English grasses and of extensive crops of turnips and other roots on which to fatten sheep and lambs, all tend to change sheep-farming from the mere grazing of huge mobs on wide, unimproved runs held by pastoral licences.
Fragilis, with some half-score varieties, is almost exclusively used by market gardeners for bunching greens, turnips and other produce.
Potatoes and turnips are the only root crops that succeed, and barley and oats are grown in some of the islands.
In spring the chaffinch is destructive to early flowers, and to young radishes and turnips just as they appear above the surface; in summer, however, it feeds principally on insects and their larvae, while in autumn and winter its food consists of grain and other seeds.
There is a comparatively small export, except in the case of turnips and potatoes and of vegetables which have been canned or dried.
Besides potatoes, which thrive well and yield large quantities of excellent quality, there are turnips, carrots, parsnips and beets.
Throughout other parts bullocks are fed on pasture land, and also in stables on nourishing and succulent feed such as hay, Indian corn fodder, Indian corn silage, turnips, carrots, mangels, ground oats, barley, peas, Indian corn, rye, bran and linseed oil cake.
Practically the only grain crops that are cultivated are oats (which greatly predominate) and barley, while the favoured root crops are turnips (much the most extensively grown) and potatoes.
Of the flora of Tibet Rockhill writes: " In the ` hot lands ' (Tsa-rong) in southern and south-eastern Tibet, extending even to Batang, peaches, apricots, apples, plums, grapes, water-melons, &c., and even pomegranates, are raised; most of Tibet only produces a few varieties of vegetables, such as potatoes, turnips, beans, cabbages, onions, &c. The principal cereals raised are barley and buckwheat, wheat in small quantities, and a little oats.
For turnips bone manure is invaluable.
The chief crops grown for early supplies, or " primeurs " as they are called, are special varieties of cos and cabbage lettuces, short carrots, radishes, turnips, cauliflowers, endives, spinach, onions, corn salad and celery.
Sow carrots, turnips, early celery, also aubergines or egg-plants, capsicums, tomatoes and successional crops of kidney-beans; cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, in gentle heat, to be afterwards planted out.
Potatoes and turnips are recommended to be sown in the yard (kitchen-garden).
Potatoes, hemp, turnips, hops, tobacco and beet are also extensively grown, the latter, in connexion with the sugar industry, showing each year a larger return.
The yellow corn and turnips were too late to come to anything.