But in 1570 the island was taken by the Turks; and Antonio Davila, the father of the historian, had to leave it, despoiled of all he possessed.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
In 1415 it was recovered by the Turks under Mahommed I., and since that period has belonged to the Ottoman empire.
After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
In 1375 the Turks captured Naissus for the first time from the Servians.
In 1443 the allied armies of the Hungarians under Hunyady and the Servians under George Brankovich, retook it from the Turks, but in 1456 it again came under Turkish dominion, and remained for more than 300 years the most important Turkish military station on the road between Hungary and Constantinople.
The Servians having, in the beginning of the 19th century, successfully cleared Servia of Turks, were emboldened to attack Nish in 1809, but were repulsed with great loss.
The Turks raised as a monument of their victory a high tower composed entirely of the heads of the Servians slain in the battle of Nish.
Having defeated the invading Turks at Villach in 1492, the king was eager to take revenge upon the king of France; but the states of the Netherlands would afford him no assistance.
It was taken by the Turks in the 16th century, and is now noted for its sponges.
The area of the ancient city is now called the Kaleh, and is inhabited by the Turks; eastward of this is the extensive Christian quarter, and beyond this again a low promontory juts northward into the sea, partly covered with the houses of a well-built suburb, which is the principal centre of commerce.
Her father's palace was pillaged by the Turks, and as a child of four years old she was sold to the comte de Ferriol, the French ambassador at Constantinople.
The principal rivals of the Aleuadae were the Scopadae of Crannon, the remains of which (called by the Turks Old Larissa) are about 14 m.
Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier; but the turbulent soldiery, composed of Kurds and Turks, mutinied against their nominal sovereign, and demanded that the new vizier should be put to death.
A Roman Catholic tribe, occupying an inaccessible district, they have hitherto defeated every effort of the Turks to encroach on their autonomy.
The advance of the Turks into Albania began with the capture of Iannina in 1431.
In 1502 the Turks captured Durazzo, and in 1571 Antivari and Dulcigno, the last Venetian possessions in Albania.
Notwithstanding the abandonment of Christianity by a large section of the population after the Turkish conquest, the authority of the sultans was never effectively established, and succeeding centuries present a record of interminable conflicts between the tribesmen and the Turks, between the Christians and the converts to Islam, or between all combined and the traditional Montenegrin enemy.
In the spring of 1903 serious disturbances took place in north-western Albania, but the Turks succeeded in pacifying the revolted tribesmen, partly by force and partly by concessions.
It was originally built in 1781 as a frontier fortress of the Turks against Russia.
The place still enjoys much repute among Turks, as the burialplace of Nur-ed-din Khoja.
The conquest of Cyprus by the Turks, and their aggressions on the Christian powers, frightened the states of the Mediterranean into forming a holy league for their common defence.
Of Spain, who was peculiarly interested in checking the Turks 1 For Lepanto see Naupactus.
It consisted in all of 273 galleys which were of lighter build than the Christians', and less well supplied with cannon or small arms. The Turks still relied mainly on the bow and arrow.
To the left of the Turks and the right of the Christians, there was open sea.
The Turks charged through the intervals between the galeasses, which proved to be of no value.
The Turks were almost all sunk or driven on shore.
The loss of life in the battle was enormous, being put at 20,000 for the Turks and 8000 for the Christians.
It gave the naval power of the Turks a blow from which it never recovered, and put a stop to their aggression in the Eastern Mediterranean.
It was occupied by the Egyptian sultans until 1517, when the Turks under Selim I.
He wrote also Bellum scodrense (1474), on account of the siege of Scodra (Scutari) by the Turks, and Antiquitates vicecomitum, the history of the Visconti, dukes of Milan, down to the death of Matteo the Great (1322).
The northern or western and shorter arm, called by the Turks Kara Su, " black water," or Frat Su (Armenian, Ephrat or Yephrat; Arab.
In the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired, or regained, a large extent of territory.
Was forced to cede Shirvan and Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in 1623.
Of the town, laid out as a park, are the ruins of the old fortress, and a monument of Stephen Dob6, the heroic defender of the town against the assaults of the Turks in 1552.
In 1552 Eger resisted the repeated assaults of a large Turkish force; in 1596, however, it was given up to the Turks by the Austrian party in the garrison, and remained in their possession until 1687.
It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth.
In August 1532 Archbishop Warham died, and the king almost immediately afterwards intimated to Cranmer, who had accompanied the emperor in his campaign against the Turks, his nomination to the vacant see.
ThOkOly materially assisted the Turks in the Vienna campaign of 1683, and shared the fate of the gigantic Turkish army.
But the campaign of 1685 was a series of disasters, and when he sought help from the Turks at Nagyvarad they seized and sent him in chains to Belgrade, possibly because of his previous negotiations with Leopold, whereupon most of his followers made their peace with the emperor.
The Turks then again grew suspicious of him and imprisoned him a second time.
In 1690, however, the Turks despatched him into Transylvania a third time with 16,000 men, and in September he routed the united forces of General Heister and Michael Teleki at Zernest.