North of Sarakhs it diminishes rapidly in volume till it is lost in the sands of the Turkman desert.
Above the ferry at Kilif, a very successful war has been waged by the agricultural Turkman (of the Ersari tribes) against the encroaching sand-waves of the desert; and a strip of riverain soil averaging about a mile in width has been reclaimed and cultivated by irrigation.
The district of Herat produces many of the smaller sorts of carpets (" galichas " or prayer-carpets), of excellent design and colour, the little town of Adraskand being especially famous for this industry; but they are not to be compared with the best products of eastern Persia or of the Turkman districts about Panjdeh.
In the south wall are the Turkman and Delhi gates.
Except in the river valleys it is a poor territory, rough and mountainous towards the south, but subsiding into undulating wastes and pasture-lands towards the Turkman desert, and the Oxus riverain which is highly cultivated.
It afterwards suffered frequently during the wars between the Persians, Armenians and Turks, and it finally passed into Russian possession by the peace of Turkman-chai in 1828.
Due west of Balkh on the edge of the Turkman desert.
In 1639, the province of Erivan, which included Echmiadzin, was assigned by treaty to Persia, and it remained in her hands until it passed to Russia, 1828, under the treaty of Turkman-chai.