In the winter of1596-1597Francis was at Turin, and at his suggestion the duke decided on a regular plan for the coercion of the refractory Protestants.
He died in Turin on the 20th of March 1894; his body was taken to Pesth, where he was buried amid the mourning of the whole.
Sergi, La Sardegna, Turin, 1907).
Strafforello, Sardegna (Turin, 1895); F.
Sergi, La Sardegna (Turin, 1907); Archivco storico Sardo from 1905; D.
(Turin, 18 53); he also wrote Il Partito nazionale italiano (Turin, 1856), L'Impero, it papato, e la democrazia in Italia (Florence, 1859): and Dell' ordinamento nazionale in Italia (Florence, 1862).
It enters the plain at Saluzzo, between which and Turin, a distance of only 30 m., it receives three considerable tributaries—the Chisone on its left bank, bringing down the waters from the valley of Fenestrelle, and the Varaita and Maira on the south, contributing those of two valleys of the Alps immediately south of that of the Po itself.
Of these the Dora (called for distinctions sake Dora Riparia), which unites with the greater river just below Turin, has its source in the Mont GenÃ¨vre, and flows past Susa at the foot of the Mont Cenis.
Hence this part of the country has a cold winter climate, so that while the mean summer temperature of Milan is higher than that of Sassari, and equal to that of Naples, and the extremes reached at Milan and Bologna are a good deal higher than those of Naples, the mean winter temperature of Turin is actually lower than that of Copenhagen.
The lowest recorded winter temperature at Turin is 5° Fahr.
Hemp is largely cultivated in the provinces of Turin, Ferrara, Bologna, Foril, Ascoli Piceno and Caserta.
At Turin the manufacture of motor-cars has attained great importance and the F.I.A.T.
There are several public assay offices in Italy for silk; the first in the world was established in Turin in 1750.
Paper-making is highly developed in the provinces of Novara, Caserta, Milan, Vicenza, Turin, Como, Lucca, Ancona, Genoa, Brescia, Cuneo, Macerata and Salerno.
Other cities where the ceramic industries keep their ground are Pesaro, Gubbio, Faenza (whose name long ago became the distinctive term for the finer kind of potters work in France, falence), Savona and Albissola, Turin, Mondovi, Cuneo, Castellamonte, Milan, Brescia, Sassuolo, Imola, Rimini, Perugia, Castelli, &c. In all these the older styles, by which these places became famous in the IthI8th centuries, have been revived.
Milan 4s the most important railway centre in the country, and is followed by Turin, Genoa, Verona, Bologna, Rome, Naples.
The northern frontier is crossed by the railway from Turin to Ventimiglia by the Col di Tenda, the Mont Cenis line from Turin to Modane (the tunnel is 7 m.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
These lines exist principally in Lombardy (especially in the province of Milan), in Piedmont, especially in the province of Turin, and in other regions of northern and central Italy.
The P0 is itself navigable from Turin downwards, but through its delta it is so sandy that canals are preferred, the P0 di Volano ~.nd the P0 di Primaro on the right, and the Canale Bianco on the left.
For instance, the number of bridegrooms unable to write their names in 1872 was in the province of Turin 26%, and in the Calabrian province of Cosenza 90%; in 1899 the percentage in the province of Turin had fallen to 5%, while in that of Cosenza it was still 76%.
There are 21 universitiesBologna, Cagliari, Camerino, Catania, Ferrara,Genoa,Macerata, Messina, Modena, Naples, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Pavia, Perugia, Pisa, Rome, Sassari, Siena, Turin, Urbino, of which Camerino, Ferrara, Perugia and Urbino are not state institutions; university courses are also given at Aquila, Ban and Catanzaro.
Of these the most frequented in 1904-1905 were: Naples (4745), Turin (3451), Rome (2630), Bologna (1711), Pavia (1559), Padua (1364), Genoa (1276), and the least frequented, Cagliari (254), Siena (235) and Sassari (200).
The institutions which co-operate with the universities are the special schools for engineers at Turin, Naples, Rome and Bologna (and others attached to some of the universities), the higher technical institute at Milan, the higher veterinary schools of Milan, Naples and Turin, the institute for higher studies at Florence (Istituto di studi superiori, pratici e di perfezionamento), the literary and scientific academy of Milan, the higher institutes for the training of female teachers at Florence and Rome, the Institute of Social Studies at Florence, the higher commercial schools at Venice, Ban and Genoa, the commercial university founded by L.
Turin Acqul, Alba, Aosta, Asti, Cuneo, Fossano, Ivrea, Mondovi,Pinerolo, Saluzzo,Susa.
There are in Italy six clearing houses, namely, the ancient one at Leghorn, and those of Genoa, Milan, Rome, Florence and Turin, founded since 1882.
Strafforello, Geografia dellItalia (Turin, I89o19o2).
Strafforello, Geografia deli Italia (Turin, 1890-1892); H.
By removing the capital from Chambry to Turin, he completed the transformation of the dukes of Savoy from Burgundian into Italian sovereigns.
Repenting of this step, he subsequently attempted to regain Turin, but was imprisoned in.
Milan and Turin fell before the allies, and Moreau, who took over the command, had much difficulty in making his way to the Genoese coast-line.
But although welcomed with enthusiasm Reaction on his return to Turin, he introduced a system of in the reaction which, if less brutal, was no less uncom- Italian promising than that of Austrian archdukes or Bourbon States.
On the 10th of March the garrison of Alessandria mutinied, and its example was followed on the 12th by that of Turin, where the Spanish constitution was demanded, and the black, red and blue flag of the Carbonari paraded the Streets.
The mission of Gaetano Castiglia and Marquis Giorgio Pallavicini to Turin, where they had interviewed Charles Albert, although without any definite resultfor Confalonieri had warned the prince that Lombardy was not ready to risewas accidentally discovered, and Confalonieri was himself arrested.
Then came the news of the Five Days of Milan, which produced the wildest excitement in Turin; unless First war the army were sent to assist the struggling Lombards of Italy at once the dynasty was in jeopardy.
When the terms of the Austro-Piedmontese armistice were announced in the Chamber at Turin they aroused great indignation, but the king succeeded in convincing the deputies Piedmont that they were inevitable.
The attempt failed and its author was caught and executed, but while t appeared at first to destroy Napoleons Italian sympathies and led to a sharp interchange of notes between Paris and Turin, the emperor was really impressed by the attempt and by Orsinis letter from prison exhorting him to intervene in Italy.
Yet after these warlike declarations and after the signing of a military convention at Turin, the king agreeing to all the conditions proposed by Napoleon, the latter suddenly became pacific again, and adopted the Russian suggestion that Italian affairs should be settled by a congress.
At Vienna the war party was in the ascendant; the convention for disarmament had been signed, but so far from its being carried out, the reserves were actually called out on the 12th of April; and on the 23rd, before Cavours decision was known at Vienna, an Austrian ultimatum reached Turin, summoning Piedmont to disarm within three days on pain of invasion.
But to Napoleons statement that he could not agree to the unification of Italy, as he was bound by his promises to Austria at Villafranca, Victor Emmanuel replied that he himself, after Magenta and Solferino, was bound in honor to link his fate with that of the Italian people; and Genetal Manfredo Fanti was sent by the Turin government to organize the army of the Central League, with Garibaldi under him.
Three weeks later the treaty of Turin ceding Savoy and Nice to France was ratified, though not without much opposition, and Cavour was fiercely reviled for his share in the transaction, especially by Garibaldi, who even contemplated an expedition to Nice, but was induced to desist by the king.
His rapid success, meanwhile, inspired both the French emperor and the government of Turin with misgivings.
On the 18th of February the first Italian at~ ~liament met at Turin, and Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed shi~ g of Italy.
M Turin to some other city within six months.
The convention was kept secret, pital but the last clause leaked out and caused the bitterest arr as- feeling among the people of Turin, who would have asf red to been resigned to losing the capital provided it were La ~rence, transferred to Rome, but resented the fact that it was un to be established in any other city, and that the conntion was made without consulting parliament.
(Turin, 1888-1897), based on a diligent stud of the original authorities and containing a large amount of informa tion; the author is a Mazzinian, which fact should be taken mt account, but he generally quotes the opinions of those who disagree with him as well.
Chialas Lettere del Conte di Cavour (~ vols., Turin, 1883 1887) and D.
Bianchis Storia della diplomazza euro pea in Italsa (8 vols., Turin, 1865) is an invaluable and thoroughly reliable work.
Farinas Sloria dIlalia dcl 1815 at 1849 (5 vols., Turin, 1851); ~V.
Bersezio, Ii Regno di Vittorio Emanuele II (8 vols., Turin, 1889, &c.).
On the 4th of January 1902, the employees of the Mediterranean railway advanced these demands at a meeting at Turin, and threatened to strike if they were not satisfied.
Then the Turin gas men struck, and a general sympathy strike broke out in that city in consequence, which resulted in scenes of violence, lasting two days.
The municipal elections in several of the larger cities, which had hitherto been regarded as strongholds of socialism, marked an overwhelming triumph for tJic constitutional parties, notably in Milan, Turin and Genoa, for the strikes had wrought as much harm to the working classe1 as to the bourgeoisie.
Carutti, Storia delta corte di Savoic durante la rivoluzione e 1 impero francese (2 vols., Turin, 1892); G.
Cibranios Stone della monarchic pieniontese (Turin, I84o), and P. Caruttis .Sloria della diplomazia delta corte di Savoia (Rome, 1875).
Aichino, of the Geological Survey of Italy, will be found in the Enciclopedia delle arte e industrie (Turin, 1898).
Ii.; Jules Brunfaut, De l'Exploitation des soufres (2nd ed., 1874); Georgio Spezia, Sull' origine del solfo nei giacementi solfiferi della Sicilia (Turin, 1892).