From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
The town was captured by the Swabian League in 1519, by Turenne in 1647, and again in 1688 by the French, who destroyed the walls.
The most important are those on Madame de Montausier (1672), which gained him the membership of the Academy, the duchesse d'Aiguillon (1675), and, above all, Marshal Turenne (1676).
Manning (1693), and the "Funeral Oration of Marshal Turenne" in H.
Conde's fame Crom= was established in his twenty-second year, Gustavus was twenty-seven and Turenne thirty-three at the military beginning of their careers as commanders-in-chief, Cromwell, on the other hand, was forty-three when he fought in his first battle.
Cromwell's strategic manoeuvres, if less adroit than those of Turenne or Montecucculi, were, in accordance with his own genius and the temper of his army, directed always to forcing a decisive battle.
The greatest feat of Turenne was the rescue of one province in 1674-1675; Cromwell, in 1648 and again in 1651, had two-thirds of England and half of Scotland for his theatre of war.
Turenne levelled down his methods to suit the ends which he had in view.
Above the town are the ruins of the castle of Engelburg, destroyed by Turenne in 1675.
The military and historical works comprise precis of the wars of Julius Caesar, Turenne and Frederick the Great.
A panegyric on Turenne, delivered in 1675, is considered his masterpiece.
Subsequently he served in the French army under Turenne, and in the Spanish under Conde, and was applauded by both commanders for his brilliant personal courage.
The duel of Sherman and Johnston is almost as personal a contest between two great captains as were the campaigns of Turenne and Montecucculi.
In 1674 it was captured and devastated by the French under Turenne, and after the death of the elector Charles (1685) it was claimed by the French as a dependency of Alsace.
But the last of these was part of a much wider struggle by land, known to Continental historians as the Dutch War of 1672-78, and the second part of this article deals with their struggle on the various frontiers of France, which was illustrated by the genius of Turenne and Conde.
Operations On Land The contemporary military history of Europe included, first, the war between France and Spain, 1654-59, usually called the Spanish Fronde, of which the most notable incident was the great battle of the Dunes fought on the 14th of June 1658 between the French and English under Turenne and the Spaniards under Conde, in which a contingent of Cromwell's soldiers bore a conspicuous part.
In the electorate of Cologne they were in friendly country, and the main army soon moved down the Rhine from Dusseldorf, the corps of Turenne on the left bank, that of Conde on the right.
The Rhine fortresses offered but little resistance to the advance of Turenne and Conde.
Turenne was therefore despatched to Westphalia and Conde to Alsace, while a corps of observation was formed on the Meuse to watch the Spanish Netherlands.
The allies in Germany were now not merely checked but driven from point to point by Turenne, who on this occasion displayed a degree of energy rare in the military history of the period.
Turenne then turned his attention to the Imperialists who were assembling in Bohemia, and made ready to meet them at Wetzlar.
Marching via Eger and Nuremberg (September 3rd) on the Main, Montecucculi drew Turenne to the valley of the Tauber; then, having persuaded the bishop of Wurzburg to surrender the bridge of that place, he passed to the right bank of the Main before Turenne could intervene.
Turenne followed, unable to do more than conform to his opponent's movements, and took post to defend Trier and Alsace.
Turenne determined to attack the southern army under the duke of Lorraine and Count Caprara before the junction could be effected.
Turenne then laid waste the Palatinate, in order that it should no longer support an army, and fell back over the Rhine, ignoring the reproaches of the elector palatine, who vainly challenged him to a duel.
After a slight attempt to invade Lorraine, which Turenne easily stopped, the Imperialists suddenly recrossed the Rhine and marched rapidly into the neighbourhood of the Strassburg bridge.
Bournonville obtained a free passage, and Turenne was too late to oppose him.
Turenne steadily retired to his camp of Dettweiler, unable for the moment to do more, and the Germans took up winter quarters in all the towns from Belfort to Strassburg (OctoberNovember 1674).
But Turenne was preparing for another winter campaign, the most brilliant in the great commander's career.
The battle of Tiirkheim (5th of January 1675) nevertheless resulted in another and this time a decisive victory for the French; a few days after the battle Turenne could report that there was not a soldier of the enemy left in Alsace.
On the Rhine was fought the last campaign of Turenne and Montecucculi.
A victory in the Dunes by Turenne, now reinstalled in honor, and above all the conquest of the Flemish seaboard, were the results (June 1658); but when, in order to prevent the emperors intervention in the Netherlands, Mazarin attempted, on the death of Ferdinand III., to wrest the Empire from the Habsburgs, he was foiled by the gold of the Spanish envoy Peflaranda (1657).
Under his orders Turenne conquered Flanders (June-August 1667); and as the queen-mother of Spain would not give in, Cond occupied Franche Comt in fourteen days The tilpie (February 1668).
The brothers de Witt, in consequence of their fresh offer to treat at any price, were assassinated; the broken dykes of Muiden arrested the victorious march of Cond and Turenne; while the popular and military party, directed by the stadtholder William of Orange, took the upper hand and preached resistance to the death.
After fighting for five years against the whole of Europe by land and by sea, the efforts of Turenne, Cond and Duquesne culminated at Nijmwegen.
The French armies, notwithstanding the disappearance of Cond and Turenne, had still glorious days before them with Luxembourg at Fleurus, at Steenkirk and at Neerwinden (1690*1693), and with Catinat in Piedmont, at Staffarda, and at Marsaglia; but these successes alternated with reverses.
When reading Moliere and Racine, Bossuet and Fnelon, the campaigns of Turenne, or Colberts ordinances; when enumerating the countless literary and ~cientific institutions of the great century; when considering the port of Brest, the Canal du Midi, Perraults cOlonnade of th~ Louvre, Mansarts Invalides and the palace of Versailles, and Vaubans fine fortificationsadmiration is kindled for the radiant splendour of Louis XIV.s period.
Thanks to him, the duke of Enghien (Louis de Bourbon, afterwards prince of Cond), appointed commander-in-chief at the age of twentytwo, caused the downfall of the renowned Spanish infantry at Rocroi; and he discovered Turenne, whose prudence tempered Conds overbold ideas.
With Turenne dominating the Eiser and the Inn, Cond victorious at Lens, and the Swedes before the gates of Prague~the emperor, left without a single ally, finally authorized his pienipotentiaries to sign on the 24th of October 1648 the peace about which negotiations had been going on for seven years.
Cond resumed civil war with the support of Spain, because he was not given Mazarins place; but though he defeated the royal army at Blneau, he was surprised at Etampes, and nearly crushed by Turenne at the gate of SaintAntoine.
By his vast expenditure, ascribable not only to his wars in Italy, his incessant embassies, and the necessity of defending himself in the Comtat Venaissin against the incursions of the adventurous Raymond of Turenne, but also to his luxurious tastes and princely habits, as well as by his persistent refusal to refer the question of the schism to a council, he incurred general reproach.
The imperialists again took Worms in 1635, and it admitted the French under Turenne in 1644.