Siberia, and of tundras in the far N.
The distribution of all these is, however, very unequal, and the five following subdivisions may be established: - (T) the tundras; (2) the forest region; (3) the middle region, comprising the surface available for agriculture and partly covered with forests; (4) the black-earth (chernozyom) region; and (5) the steppes.
The Arctic Region comprises the tundras of the Arctic littoral beyond the N.
The Forest Region of the Russian botanists includes the greater part of the country, from the Arctic tundras to the steppes, and over this immense expanse it maintains a remarkable uniformity of character.
European plains - the tundras, including the Arctic islands, the forest region, especially the coniferous part of it, and the ante-steppe and steppes of the black earth region.
In the region of the tundras life has to contend with such unfavourable conditions that it cannot be abundant.
Ducks, divers, geese, gulls, all the Russian species of snipes and sandpipers (Limicolae, Tringae), &c., swarm on the marshes of the tundras and on the crags of the Lapland coast.
For flora of the tundras, Beketov's " Flora of Archangel," in Mem.
In the tundras of the extreme N.
The exact number of the Ostiak Samoyedes is not known; the Tavghi Samoyedes may number about woo, and the Yuraks, mixed with the former, are estimated at 6000 in Obdorsk (about 150 settled), 5000 in European Russia in the tundras of the Mezen, and about 350 in Yeniseisk.
Of the Lena) ranges, diversify these monotonous lowlands, which are covered with a thick sheet of black earth in the south and assume the character of barren tundras in the north.
The last trees which struggle for existence on the verge of the tundras are crippled dwarfs and almost without branches, and trees a hundred years old are only a few feet high and a few inches through and thickly encrusted with lichens.'
The following species, none of which are found in European Russia, are characteristic of the tundras - arbutus (Arctostaphilus alpina), heaths or andomedas (Cassiope tetragona and C. hypnoides), Phyllodoce taxifolia, Loiseleuria procumbens, a species of Latifolium, a Polar azalea (Osmothamnus fragrans) and a Polar willow (Salix arctica).
A separate tribe, the Filmans, i.e Finnmans, wander about the Pazyets, Motov and Pechenga tundras, and retain the peculiar dialect and the Lutheran creed which they owe to a former connexion with Sweden.
Rain and snow are copious, and dense fogs enshroud the coast in summer; consequently the mountains are well clothed with timber and the meadows with grass, except in the tundras of the north.
Immense marshy plains covered with the dwarf birch take their place in the north as the tundras are approached.