A frame of wood or steel, erected at the shaft mouth, and rarely employed except for deep shafts of small cross-section or when the mine cars (tubs) are small, as in many parts of Europe.
Generally it is done by horse or mechanical traction, ground upon railways, the " trams " or " tubs," as the pit convey= wagons are called, being where possible brought up to ante.
In the main roads to the pit when the distance is not considerable horse traction may be used, a train of 6 to i 5 vehicles being drawn by one horse, but more generally the hauling or, as it is called in the north of England, the leading of the trains of tubs is effected by mechanical traction.
In the first, which is that generally used in Northumberland and Durham, a single line of rails is used, the loaded tubs being drawn " out bye," i.e.
The main rope, which draws out the loaded tubs, coils upon one drum, and passes near the floor over guide sheaves placed about 20 ft.
From 8 to ro tubs are usually drawn in a set, the ways being often from 2000 to 3000 yds.
The chain passes over a pulley driven by the engine, placed at such a height as to allow it to rest upon the tops of the tubs, and round a similar pulley at the far end of the plane.
The tubs are placed on at intervals of about 20 yds., the chain moving continuously at a speed of from 21 to 4 m.
The tubs are usually formed into sets of from 2 to 12, the front one being coupled up by a short length of chain to a clamping hook formed of two jaws moulded to the curve of the rope which are attached by the " run rider," as the driver accompanying the train is called.
Tubs or 4 tons of coal.
In Koepe's method the drum is replaced by a disk with a grooved rim for the rope, which passes from the top of one cage over the guide pulley, round the disk, and back over the second guide to the second cage, and a tail rope, passing round a pulley at the bottom of the shaft, connects the bottoms of the cages, so that the dead weight of cage, tubs and rope is completely counterbalanced at all positions of the cages, and the work of the engine is confined to the useful weight of coal raised.
The tubs are then removed or struck by the landers, who pull them forward on to the platform, which is covered with cast iron plates; at the same time empty ones are pushed in from the opposite side.
The cage is then lifted by the engine clear of the keeps, which are opened by a lever worked by hand, and the empty tubs start on the return trip. When the cage has several decks, it is necessary to repeat this operation for each, unless there is a special provision made for loading and discharging the tubs at different levels.
The empty tubs are carried by a corresponding arrangement on the opposite side.
By this means the time of stoppage is reduced to a minimum, 8 seconds for a three-decked cage as against 28 seconds, as the operations of lowering the tubs to the level of the pit-top, discharging, and replacing them are performed during the time that the following load is being drawn up the pit.
In the United Kingdom the drawing of coal is generally confined to the day shift of eight hours, with an output of from 100 to 150 tons per hour, according to the depth, capacity of coal tubs, and facilities for landing and changing tubs.
Among the wooden objects recovered from the relic beds were tubs, plates, ladles and spoons, a flail for threshing corn, a last for stretching shoes of hide, celt handles, clubs, long-bows of yew, floats and implements of fishing and a dug-out canoe 12 ft.
For domestic dishes they also made wooden tubs, plates, spoons, ladles and the like.
In the early process for extracting the oil the livers were allowed to putrefy in wooden tubs, when oils of two qualities, one called "pale oil," and the other "light brown oil," successively rose to the surface and were drawn off.
Potassium carbonate, K 2 CO 3, popularly known as "potashes," was originally obtained in countries where wood was cheap by lixiviating wood ashes in wooden tubs, evaporating the solution to dryness in iron pots and calcining the residue; in more recent practice the calcination is carried out in reverberatory furnaces.
No traces of meat-market, theatre or aqueduct have come to light; water was got from wells lined with wooden tubs, and must have been scanty in dry summers.
Slate pots or tubs, usually square, are sometimes adopted, and are durable and otherwise unobjectionable, only, their sides being less porous, the earth does not dry so rapidly, and some modification of treatment as to watering is necessary.
For large conservatory specimens wooden tubs, round or square, are frequently used; these should be coated with pitch inside to render them more durable.
The instructions of 1700 directed the supercargoes to send home 300 tubs of the finer green teas and 80 tubs of bohea.
The chief varieties of this ware are vitrified china, belleek china, semi-porcelain, white granite and c. c. ware, vitrified porcelain for electrical supplies, porcelain bath tubs and tiles, and terra-cotta.
The ground ore was stirred with this solution at 7 C. in wooden tubs until all the copper was dissolved.
The plants are usually grown in tubs and put out in the summer months, but in the winter require to be protected from frost.
Among Elgin's manufactures are watches and watch-cases, butter and other dairy products, cooperage (especially butter tubs), canned corn, shirts, foundry and machine-shop products, pipe-organs, and caskets and casket trimmings; in 1905 Elgin's total factory product was valued at $9,349, 2 74.
The plants are easy to cultivate, and are generally grown in large pots or tubs which can be protected from frost in winter.
And oh, the housekeeping! to keep bright the devil's door-knobs, and scour his tubs this bright day!
At this Natasha dashed swiftly among the flower tubs and hid there.
She grew confused, glanced round, and, seeing the doll she had thrown down on one of the tubs, picked it up.
Then she slipped down among the flowerpots on the other side of the tubs and stood, hanging her head.
The officers were hurriedly drinking tea and breakfasting, the soldiers, munching biscuit and beating a tattoo with their feet to warm themselves, gathering round the fires throwing into the flames the remains of sheds, chairs, tables, wheels, tubs, and everything that they did not want or could not carry away with them.
Prince Andrew rode up to the hothouse; some of the glass panes were broken, and of the trees in tubs some were overturned and others dried up.