Hind feet with one or two phalanges, in the first toe forming a distinct tubercle visible externally; the second and third toes very slender, of equal length, joined as far From Gould.
After making its way into the interior, the intruder sets up a considerable hyper trophy of the tissue, causing the formation of a tubercle, which soon shows a certain differentiation, branches of the vascular bundles of the root being supplied to it.
The rod-like bodies from the intenor of the tube, which has considerable resemblance to the zoogloea of many Bacteria, are liberated into the interior of the cells of the tubercle and fill it, increasing by a process of branching and fission.
The chief muscular mass, arising from the sternum in the shape of a U, is the pectoralis muscle; its fibres converge into a strong tendon, which is inserted upon the greater tubercle and upper crest of the humerus, which it depresses and slightly rotates forwards during the downstroke.
This arises mostly from the angle formed by the keel with the body of the sternum, passes by a strong tendon through the foramen triosseum, and is inserted upon the upper tubercle of the humeral crest, which it rotates and abducts.
- Orifice of foetid glands opening on a tubercle situated near the lateral border of the carapace above the base of the 5th appendage.
Before the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, scrofula and tuberculosis were regarded as two distinct diseases, and it was supposed that the scrofulous constitution could be distinguished from the tubercular.
Their pneumonic nature has been amply substantiated in later times; they are now regarded simply as evidence of pneumonic reaction to the stimulus of the tubercle bacillus.
Some pathological cells, such as the giant-cells of tumours, of bone, and those of tubercle, are polynucleated; in some instances they may contain as many as thirty or more nuclei.
Intranuclear plexuses are not usually found in giantcells, but have been described in the giant-cells of sarcomata by Klebs and Hansemann, and in those of tubercle by Baumgarten.
- Tubercle bacilli in tissues from human lung in a case of acute phthisis.
The whole system of treatment of tubercular disease has been altered by the discovery of the tubercle microphyte.
The pathologico-anatomical method was also followed with great zeal and success by Gaspard Laurent Bayle (1774-1816), whose researches on tubercle, and the changes of the lungs and other organs in consumption, are the foundation of most that has been done since his time.
On the other hand, inheritance was dismissed, or survived only as a "susceptibility," in the cases of tubercle, leprosy and some other maladies now recognized as infectious; while in others, as in syphilis, it was seen to consist in a translation of the infectious element from parent to offspring.
In 1880, two years before Koch discovered the bacillus of tubercle, C. L.
By the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, the physician has been enabled to piece together a long and varied list of maladies under several names, such as scrofula and lupus, many of them long suspected to be tuberculous, but now known to belong to the series.
Neither male nor female has wings; the rostrum is replaced by a functionless tubercle; and there is no alimentary canal.
In others the wings are armed with a tubercle or even a sharp spur on the carpus.
By treating milk at a temperature of 60° C. for one hour, 70° C. for ten minutes, and 95° C. for one minute, tubercle bacilli, if present, will certainly be killed.
Cholera and typhoid organisms are less resistant, and are killed more quickly than tubercle bacilli at the above temperatures.
The skull resembles that of the lion and tiger, but is much broader in proportion to its length, and may be identified by the presence of a tubercle on the inner edge of the orbit.
In Mytilus the foot is reduced to little more than a tubercle carrying the apertures of these glands.
Lafar has stated that 20% of the cows in Germany suffer from tuberculosis, which also affected 17.7% of the cattle slaughtered in Copenhagen between 1891 and 1893, and that one in every thirteen samples of milk examined in Paris, and one in every nineteen in Washington, contained tubercle bacilli.
Thus the organisms of suppuration, tubercle, glanders, diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, tetanus, and others were identified, and their relationship to the individual diseases established.
This is the case in the methods for staining the tubercle bacillus and also in Gram's method, the essential point in which latter is the treatment with a solution of iodine before decolorizing.
The tubercle bacillus.
For this purpose Koch ground up tubercle bacilli in an agate mortar and treated them with distilled water until practically no deposit remained.
In many cases, however, the filtrate, when injected, produces comparatively little effect, whilst toxic action is observed when the bacteria in a dead condition are used; this is the case with the organisms of tubercle, cholera, typhoid and many others.
Thus, to mention examples, diphtheria toxin produces inflammatory oedema which may be followed by necrosis; dead tubercle bacilli give rise to a tubercle-like nodule, &c. Furthermore, a bacillus may give rise to more than one toxic body, either as stages in one process of change or as distinct products.
Many of them, probably also of proteid nature, are much more resistant to heat; thus the intracellular toxins of the tubercle bacillus retain certain of their effects even after exposure to ioo° C. Like the extracellular toxins they may be of remarkable potency; for example, fever is produced in the human subject by the injection into the blood of an extremely minute quantity of dead typhoid bacilli.
In this way secondary abscesses, secondary tubercle glanders and nodules, &c., result; in typhoid fever there is secondary invasion of the mesenteric glands, and clumps of bacilli are also found in internal organs, especially the spleen, though there may be little tissue change around them.
Some of the species are thoroughly aquatic and have fully webbed toes, others are terrestrial, except during the breeding season, others are adapted for burrowing, by means of the much-enlarged and sharp-edged tubercle at the base of the inner toe, whilst not a few have the tips of the digits dilated into disks by which they are able to climb on trees.