See Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des tsars, ii.
L'Empire des tsars, ii.
To the conservatives, known subsequently as Old Ritualists or Old Believers, this marked the beginning of the reign of Antichrist (was not 666 the number of the Beast?); but they continued the struggle, conservative opposition to the Westernizing policy of the tsars, which was held responsible for the introduction of Polish luxury and Latin heresy, giving it a political as well as a religious character.
The Muscovite tsars had pursued them with fire and sword.
Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des Tsars, tome iii.
Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des tsars (3 vols., 1882-88; Eng.
The tsars of Muscovy meant to be autocratic rulers alike in their old and in their new territories.
The zemski sobor, which had played a considerable part in the struggle of the tsars against the great boyars in the 17th century, had met but once since the days of Peter the Great.
- Georges Alfassa, La Crise agraire en Russie (Paris, 1905); Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des Tsars (3 vols., Paris, 1882-88; Eng.
This was due partly to the excessive proselytizing energy of the Angevins, which provoked rebellion on the part of their Greek-Orthodox subjects, partly to the natural dynastic competition of the Servian and Bulgarian tsars, and partly to the emergence of a new nationality, called Walachia was regarded by the Magyars as part of the banate of Szoreny.
The Franciscan friar Kacic, who did so much for the revival of popular poetry in Bosnia and Dalmatia in the mid-18th century, shows similar traces of Serbophil feeling, and the achievements of Dusan and other Serbian Tsars have bulked almost as largely in the modern literature of the Croats as of the Serbs themselves.
That Boris was one of the greatest of the Muscovite tsars there can be no doubt.
The introduction into the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji of 1774 of a clause by which the Porte guaranteed the rights of its Christian subjects, and of another 'giving Russia the right to interfere on behalf of a new Russian church in Constantinople, advertised the claim of the tsars to be the natural protectors of the Orthodox in the Ottoman dominions; but when she took up arms again in 1788 in alliance with Joseph II., it was to make a mere war of conquest and partition.
With the tsars Vasily III.
But Frederick William, though the tsars influence over him, was as great as over his father, refused to be convinced.
Meanwhile the ambition of Catherine of Russia, and the war with Turkey by which the empire of the tsars was advanced to the Black Sea and threatened to establish itself south of the Danube, were productive of consequences of Austria enormous importance to Austria in the East.
By some it is supposed that a mysterious hermit named Fomich, who lived at Tomsk until 1870 and was treated with peculiar deference by successive tsars, was none other than Alexander.'
In 1610 he was imprisoned by the king of Poland, but his piety and virtues led to the election of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov, to the throne of the tsars in 1613.
Nothing remarkable seems to have occurred till 1788, under Gustavus III., who began to reign in 1771, and who confirmed to Finland those " fundamental laws " which they have succeeded in maintaining against kings and tsars for over two centuries.
But the Slavophil movement, with its motto, " one law, one church, one tongue," acquired great influence in official circles, and its aim was, in defiance of the pledges of successive tsars, to subject Finland to Orthodoxy and autocracy.
The constitutional question was fully discussed in English in Finland and the Tsars, by J.
Meanwhile, civil war had broken out in the provin.ces; Kurdish raiders had sacked many villages near Tabriz; Persian brigands had attacked the Russian frontier-guards on the borders of Transcaucasia, and the indemnity demanded by the tsars government was not paid until several Persian villages had been burned by Russian troops.
Thus, at a time when this style (Padishah) was refused by the Sultan to the tsars of Russia, and even to the Holy Roman Emperor himself, it was allowed to the French kings, who in diplomatic correspondence and treaties with Turkey called themselves "emperor of France" (empereur de France).
One word from me, one movement of my hand, and that ancient capital of the Tsars would perish.
In his imagination he appointed days for assemblies at the palace of the Tsars, at which Russian notables and his own would mingle.
Two of Leroy-Beaulieu's works have been translated into English: one as the Empire of the Tsars and the Russians, by Z.