Malik-al-Adil, the brother of Saladin, had by 1200 succeeded to his brother's possessions not only in Egypt but also in Syria, and he granted the Christians a series of truces (1198-1203, 1204-1210, 1211-1217).
Attendant on them were the heralds, who were the officers of their military court, wherein offences committed in the camp and field were tried and adjudged, and among whose duties it was to carry orders and messages, to deliver challenges and call truces, and to identify and number the wounded and the slain.
In 1380 and 1381, Lancaster, uncle of Richard II., arranged truces, but difficulties were caused by the late proclamation, in Scotland, of a truce made with her ally, France, on the 26th of January 1384.
Truces and empty negotiations merely protracted disorder.
This murder was the cause of long and bloody wars, interspersed with truces, between Chilperic and Sigebert.
Military and naval commanders, for matters, such as truces, capitulations and cartels, which are necessarily confided to their discretion.
A large force of Lombards under Audoin fought on the imperial side at the battle of the Apennines against the Ostrogothic king Totila in 5 53, but the assistance of Justinian, though often promised, had no effect on the relations of the two nations, which were settled for the moment after a series of truces by the victory of the Langobardi, probably in 554.
There followed an interminable series of arguments, interrupted by truces, till at last Anselm, at the kings suggestion, went to Rome to see if the pope could arrange some modus vivendi.
He plunged into a war with this clever and shifty prince, which lastedwith certain short breaks of truces aqd treatiestill his death.
But the main forces Renewalof on both sides were not brought into action till the the war series of truces ran out in 1355.
After two long truces, which filled the years 1390-1395, a definitive peace was at last concluded, by which the English king kept Calais and the coaststrip of Guienne, from Bordeaux to Bayonne, which had never been lost to the enemy.
The concordats are of the nature of truces in the perennial conflict between the spiritual and secular powers, and imply in principle no surrender of the claims of the one to those of the other.