The zone of level country extending from Reims and Troyes to Angers and Poitiers, with the exception of the Loire valley and the Brie, receives less than 24 in.
Troyes - 44,864 50,676 51,228
SENS - - - Troyes, Nevers, Moulins.
The Est, running from Paris via Chlons and Nancy to Avricourt (for Strassburg), via Troyes and Langres to Belfort and on via Basel to the Saint Gotthard, and via Reims and Mezires to Longwy.
The river valleys abound in natural pasture, and sainfoin, lucerne and other forage crops are largely grown; cattle-raising is an important source of wealth, and the cheeses of Troyes are well known.
There are excellent nurseries and orchards in the neighbourhood of Troyes, Bar-sur-Seine, Mery-sur-Seine and Brienne.
Chalk, from which blanc de Troyes is manufactured, and clay are abundant; and there are peat workings and quarries of building-stone and limestone.
The spinning and weaving of cotton and the manufacture of hosiery, of both of which Troyes is the centre, are the main industries of the department; there are also a large number of distilleries, tanneries, oil works, tile and brick works, flour-mills, saw-mills and dyeworks.
It constitutes the diocese of Troyes and part of the archiepiscopal province of Sens.
The capital of the department is Troyes; of the arrondissements the capitals are Troyes, Bar-sur-Aube, Arcis-sur-Aube, Bar-surSeine and Nogent-sur-Seine.
Besides the cathedral and other churches of Troyes, those of Mussy-sur-Seine (r3th century), Chaource (16th century) and Nogent-sur-Seine (15th and 16th centuries), are of note.
In 1040 at Mainz), a famous Talmudist and com mentator, his pupil Jacob ben Yaqar, and Moses of Narbonne, called ha-Darshan, the "Exegete," were the forerunners of the greatest of all Jewish commentators, Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi), who died at Troyes in 1105.
At Troyes, where the gild of St Crispin was reconstituted as late as 1820, an annual festival is celebrated in the church of St Urban.
Soon after Gershom's death, Rashi (1040-1106) founded at Troyes a new school of learning.
Chretien de Troyes' treatment of him is contradictory; in the Erec, his earliest extant poem, Lancelot's name appears as third on the list of the knights of Arthur's court.
JULES FRANCOIS ALEXANDRE JOFFRIN (1846-1890), French politician, was born at Troyes on the 16th of March 1846.
PIERRE PITHOU (1539-1596), French lawyer and scholar, was born at Troyes on the 1st of November 1539.
Wagner's next and last work was Parsifal, based upon the legend of the Holy Grail, as set forth, not in the legend of the Morte d'Arthur, but in the versions of Chrestien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach and other less-known works.
When peace was eventually made at Troyes in May 1420 Henry and Catherine were betrothed, and the marriage took place at Troyes on the 2nd of June 1420.
450), an ecclesiastical writer of the Western Church of whose personal history hardly anything is known, except that he was a native of Gaul, possibly brother of St Loup, bishop of Troyes, that he became a monk and priest at Lerinum, and that he died in or about 450.
At nightfall the fighting ceased and the emperor retired to Lesmont, and thence to Troyes, Marmont being left to observe the enemy.
These disasters compelled the retreat of the whole Silesian army, and Napoleon, leaving Mortier and Marmont to deal with them, hurried back to Troyes with his main body to strike the flank of Schwarzenberg's army, which had meanwhile begun its leisurely advance, and again at Mormant on the 17th of February, Montereau the 38th and Mery the he inflicted such heavy punishment upon his adversaries that they fell back precipitately to Bar-sur-Aube.
PIERRE DE BERULLE (1575-1629), French cardinal and statesman,was born at Serilly, near Troyes, on the 4th of February 1 575.
Chretien de Troyes, in his Cligds (the date of which falls somewhere in the decade 1160-1170), knew and utilized the story of the "Three Days' Tournament," and moreover makes Lancelot take part in it.
As civil commissioner at Troyes he was accused of terrorism by some, and by the revolutionary tribunal of moderation.
He is first spoken of in Nennius's History of the Britons (9th century), and at greater length in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (12th century), at the end of which the French Breton cycle attained its fullest development in the poems of Chretien de Troyes and others.
(Troyes, 1619); G.
Marie de France, who wrote at the court of Henry II., and Chretien de Troyes, her French contemporary, were the earliest of the avowed romancers to take up the theme.
In the poems of Chretien de Troyes, Gawain, though generally placed first in the list of knights, is by no means the hero par excellence.
Recent discoveries have made it practically certain that there existed, prior to the extant romances, a collection of short episodic poems, devoted to the glorification of Arthur's famous nephew and his immediate kin (his brother Ghaeris, or Gareth, and his son Guinglain), the authorship of which was attributed to a Welshman, Bleheris; fragments of this collection have been preserved to us alike in the first continuation of Chretien de Troyes Perceval, due to Wauchier de Denain, and in our vernacular Gawain poems. Among these "Bleheris" poems was one dealing with Gawain's adventures at the Grail castle,where the Grail is represented as non-Christian, and present s features strongly reminiscent of the ancient Nature mysteries.
GEOFFROY DE VILLEHARDOUIN (c. 1160 - c. 1213), the first vernacular historian of France, and perhaps of modern Europe, who possesses literary merit, is rather supposed than known to have been born at the château from which he took his name, near Troyes, in Champagne, about the year 1160.
Having been set free towards the end of that year by John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, whom she had called to her assistance, she went to Troyes and established her government there, returning afterwards to Paris when that city had capitulated to the Burgundians in July 1418.
Once more in power, she now took up arms against her son, the dauphin Charles; and after the murder of John the Fearless she went over to the side of the English, into whose hands she surrendered France lty the treaty of Troyes (May 21, 1420), at the same time giving her daughter Catherine in marriage to the king of England, Henry V.
The first edition of the five books of Phaedrus was published by Pithou at Troyes in 1596 from a manuscript now in the possession of the marquis of Rosanbo.
Of Troyes on the Eastern railway to Chalonssur-Marne.
Of Troyes by the Eastern railway.
I' Mignard, Pierre (1610-1695), called - to distinguish him from his brother Nicholas - Le Romain, French painter, was born at Troyes in 1610, and came of a family of artists.
In 1148 he resided at Moiltiers la Celle in the diocese of Troyes, with his friend Peter of Celle:.
Of France Alliance and Louis the Fat, at the Council of Troyes (1107), with an alliance which was for more.
- The most important authority for the history of Charles's reign is represented by the Annales Bertiniani, which were the work of Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, up to 861, then up to 882 of the celebrated Hincmar, archbishop of Reims. This prince's charters are to be found published in the collections of the Acadimie des Inscriptions, by M.
404 an institution in which Goths might be trained to preach the Gospel to their own people; 3 Martin of Tours, who evangelized the central districts of Gaul; Valentinus, the " apostle of Noricum," about 440; Honoratus, who from his monastic home in the islet of Lerins, about 410, sent missionaries among the masses of heathendom in the neighbourhood of Arles, Lyons, Troyes, Metz and Nice; and St Patrick, who converted Ireland into " the isle of saints " (died either in 463 or 495).
The LancelotGuenevere romance took form and shape in the artificial atmosphere encouraged by such patronesses of literature as Eleanor of Aquitaine and her daughter Marie, Comtesse de Champagne (for whom Chretien de Troyes wrote his Chevalier de la Charrette), and reflects the low social morality of a time when love between husband and wife was declared impossible.
He was disinherited by the treaty of Troyes in 1420, and at the time of his father's death in 1422 had retired to Mehun-sur-Yevre, near Bourges, which had been the nominal seat of government since 1418.
Beaufort, however, gradually retired from public life, and after witnessing the conclusion of the treaty of Troyes died at Wolvesey palace, Winchester, on the 10th of April 1447.
Philip, the new duke, and the French court threw themselves into Henry's arms. After six months' negotiation Henry was by the Treaty of Troyes recognized as heir and regent of France, and on the 2nd of June 1420 married Catherine, the king's daughter.
Of Troyes on the Eastern railway to Belfort.
Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, definitely states that he was of Irish extraction.
Of Troyes on the main line of the Eastern railway between that town and Belfort.
They are versions of three medieval stories taken from French and German sources, and dealt with the Chevalier au lion, of Chrestien de Troyes, with Duke Frederick of Normandy, and with Flores and Blancheflor.
By the treaty of Troyes (May 21, 1415) he obtained the hand of Catherine, Charles VI.'s daughter, with the titles of regent and heir to the kingdom of France.
Already in the 8th century Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, had in a Breviarium Psalterii made an abridgment of the Psalter for the laity, giving a few psalms for each day, and Alcuin had rendered a similar service by including a prayer for each day and some other prayers, but no lessons or homilies.
At the council of Troyes to be consecrated afresh.
Attila, who knew the difficulty that he should have in feeding his immense army if his march was further delayed, turned again to the north-east, was persuaded by the venerable bishop Lupus to spare the city of Troyes, but halted near that place in the Catalaunian plains and offered battle to his pursuers Aetius and Theodoric. The battle which followed - certainly one of the decisive battles of the world - has been.
The murder of John the Fearless in 1419 under the eyes of the dauphin Charles threw the Burgundians definitely into the arms of the English, and his successor Philip the Good, in concert with Queen Isabeau, concluded (1420) the treaty of Troyes with Henry V., who became master of France.
By persuading his brother, the duke of Brittany, to conclude the treaty of Troyes, by which France was handed over to the English king.
Pope Adrian protested against his deposition, but it was confirmed in 876 by Pope John VIII., and it was not until 878, at the council of Troyes, that the unfortunate prelate was reconciled with the Church.
Besides the works already mentioned, he was the author of several theological tracts; of the De villa Noviliaco, concerning the claiming of a domain of his church; and he continued from 861 the Annales Bertiniani, of which the first part was written by Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, the best source for the history of Charles the Bald.
With some difficulty the dauphin was then persuaded to set out towards Reims, which he entered with an army of 12,000 men on the 16th of July, Troyes having yielded on the way.
These terms were welcomed by the English king, Treaty of and ratified at the treaty of Troyes (May 21, 1420).
But the act of parliament which embodied it did not formally disinherit the reigning kings son, as the treaty of Troyes had done, but merely ignored his existence.
Through the medium of French-speaking Bretons these tales came to the cognizance of Northern French poets, notably Chretien de Troyes, who wove them into romances.