Ladenburg (Ann., 1875, 179, p. 163) to be symmetrical trimethyl benzene; terephthalic acid, the remaining isomer, must therefore be the para-compound.
The identity of the four valencies of the carbon atom follows from the fact that the heats of combustion of methane, ethane, propane, trimethyl methane, and tetramethyl methane, have a constant difference in the order given, viz.
The thermal effects increase as one passes from primary to tertiary alcohols, the values deduced from propyl and isopropyl alcohols and trimethyl carbinol being: - primary =45 08, secondary = 50.39, tertiary = 60.98.
Trimethyl carbinol or tertiary butyl alcohol, (CH 3) 3.
At a temperature of about 300-400° C. the alkyl chloride formed in this reaction attacks the benzene nucleus and replaces hydrogen by an alkyl group or groups, forming primary amines homologous with the original amine; thus methylaniline hydrochloride is converted into paraand ortho-toluidine hydrochloride, and trimethyl phenyl ammonium iodide is converted into mesidine hydriodide.
CH: CH 2; isopropylethylene, (CH 3) 2 CH CH: CH 2; symmetrical methyl-ethyl-ethylene, CH 3 CH: CH C 2 H 5; unsymmetrical methyl-ethyl-ethylene, (CH 3)(C 2 H 5)C:CH 2 i and trimethyl ethylene, (CH3)2C:CH(CH3).
By distilling an alloy of antimony and sodium with mythyl iodide, mixed with sand, trimethyl stibine, Sb(CH 3) 3 i is obtained; this combines with excess of methyl iodide to form tetramethyl stibonium iodide, Sb(CH 3) 4 1.
From this iodide the trimethyl stibine may be obtained by distillation with an alloy of potassium and antimony in a current of carbon dioxide.
On distilling trimethyl stibine with zinc methyl, antimony tetra-methyl and penta-methyl are formed.
On distillation with sulphuric acid, it is converted into mesitylene C 9 H 12 (symmetrical trimethyl benzene).
Campholactone, C9H1402, is the la.ctone of trimethyl-2.2.
For an isomer, isocampholactone (the lactone of trimethyl-2.2.
Lauronolic acid, C 9 H 14 0 21 is trimethyl-2.2.
Isolauronolic acid, C 9 H 14 0 2, is trimethyl-2.2.3-cyclo-pentene-3-acid-4.
Camphononic acid, C9H1403, is trimethyl-2.2.
Isocamphorphorone, C 9 H 14 O, is trimethyl i.
Euterpene (trimethyl-i 4.4-cyclo-heptadiene 1.5), C 1 oH 1 s is prepared from dihydroeucarveol.
The tertiary arsines, such as As(CH3)3, trimethyl arsine, and the quaternary arsonium iodides and hydroxides, (CH3)4AsI and (CH3)4AsOH, tetramethyl arsonium iodide and hydroxide, have been obtained.