Many organic compounds of boron are known; thus, from the action of the trichloride on ethyl alcohol or on methyl alcohol, ethyl borate B(OC2H5)3 and methyl borate B(OCH 3) 3 are obtained.
Molybdenum dichloride (MoC1 2) 3 or Cl 4 Mo 3 C1 2 (chlormolybdenum chloride), is prepared (together with some tetrachloride) by heating the trichloride in a stream of carbon dioxide (C. W.
Molybdenum trichloride, MoC1 31 is obtained when the pentachloride is heated to a temperature of about 250° C. in a current of hydrogen.
Amongst endothermic compounds may be noted hydriodic acid, HI, acetylene, C 2 H 2, nitrous oxide, N 2 O, nitric oxide, NO, azoimide, N 3 H, nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3.
Of the halogen compounds of phosphorus, the trichloride was discovered by Gay Lussac and Thenard, while the pentachloride was obtained by Davy.
Nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3, discovered by P. L.
Columbium trichloride, CbC1 3, is obtained in needles or crystalline crusts, when the vapour of the pentachloride is slowly passed through a red-hot tube.
The chloride is very hygroscopic. By heating in hydrogen it yields the trichloride, UC1 3, and by direct combination with chlorine the pentachloride, UC1 5.
A hydrated form is prepared when a solution of titanic acid in hydrochloric acid is digested with copper, or when the trichloride is precipitated with alkalis.
Titanium dichloride, TiC1 21 obtained by passing hydrogen over the trichloride at a dull red heat, is a very hygroscopic brown powder which inflames when exposed to air, and energetically decomposes water.
Titanium trichloride, TiC131 forms involatile, dark violet scales, and is obtained by passing the vapour of the tetrachloride mixed with hydrogen through a red-hot tube, or by heating the tetrachloride with molecular silver to 200°.
Auric chloride, or gold trichloride, AuC1 3, is a dark rubyred or reddish-brown, crystalline, deliquescent powder obtained by dissolving the metal in aqua regia.
The dichloride, BiC1 2, is obtained as a brown crystalline powder by fusing the metal with the trichloride, or in a current of chlorine, or by heating the metal with calomel to 250°.
Bismuth trichloride, BiC13, was obtained by Robert Boyle by heating the metal with corrosive sublimate.
Bismuth trichloride forms double compounds with hydrochloric acid, the chlorides of the alkaline metals, ammonia, nitric oxide and nitrosyl chloride.
These compounds closely resemble the trichloride in their methods of preparation and their properties, forming oxyhaloids with water, and double compounds with ammonia, &c.
The trichloride, OsC1 3, is only known in solution and is formed by the reducing action of mercury on ammoniacal solutions of the tetroxide.
The trichloride, IC1 31 results from the action of excess of chlorine on iodine, or from iodic acid and hydrochloric acid, or by heating iodine pentoxide with phosphorus pentachloride.
They are more easily reduced than the corresponding chlorates; an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid giving free iodine and a metallic oxide, whilst aqueous hydrochloric acid gives iodine trichloride, chlorine, water and a chloride.
Bernthsen); by the action of ammonium chloride or hydrochlorides of amines on nitriles; by condensing amines and amides in presence of phosphorus trichloride; by the action of hydrochloric acid on acid-amides (0.
J.C.S., 1907, ii., p. 873) obtained a black trichloride and a reddish-brown tetrachloride.
Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.
Trans., 1858, p. 185; 18 59, p. 797; 1862, p. 623), on electrolysing a solution of antimony trichloride in hydrochloric acid, using a positive pole of antimony and a negative pole of copper or platinum wire.
It has a specific gravity of 5.78 and always contains some unaltered antimony trichloride (from 6 to 20%, G.
Dilute hydrochloric acid is without action on it, but on warming with the concentrated acid, antimony trichloride is formed; it dissolves in warm concentrated sulphuric acid, the sulphate Sb2(S04)3 being formed.
Antimony trioxide occurs as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite, and can be artificially prepared by burning antimony in air; by heating the metal in steam to a bright red heat; by oxidizing melted antimony with litharge; by decomposing antimony trichloride with an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate, or by the action of dilute nitric acid on the metal.
Berzelius); or by evaporating antimony trichloride to dryness with nitric acid.
Antimony trichloride ("Butter of Antimony"), SbCl 31 is obtained by burning the metal in chlorine; by distilling antimony with excess of mercuric chloride; and by fractional distillation of antimony tetroxide or trisulphide in hydrochloric acid solution.
Antimony pentachloride, SbC1 5, is prepared by heating the trichloride in a current of chlorine.
It is a nearly colourless fuming liquid of unpleasant smell, which can be solidified to a mass of crystals melting at-6° C. It dissociates into the trichloride and chlorine when heated.
Antimonyl chloride, SbOC1, is produced by the decomposition of one part of the trichloride with four parts of water.
On precipitating antimony trichloride or tartar emetic in acid solution with sulphuretted hydrogen, an orange-red precipitate of the hydrated sulphide is obtained, which turns black on being heated to 200° C The trisulphide heated in a current of hydrogen is reduced to the metallic state; it burns in air forming the tetroxide, and is soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid, in solutions of the caustic alkalis, and in alkaline sulphides.
An antimony phosphide and arsenide are known, as is also a thiophosphate, SbPS 4, which is prepared by heating together antimony trichloride and phosphorus pentasulphide.
Corresponding antimony compounds containing the ethyl group. are known, as is also a tri-phenyl stibine, Sb(C6H5)3, which is prepared from antimony trichloride, sodium and monochlorbenzene.
It combines with titanium and tin bichlorides and with antimony trichloride, and it is decomposed by water.
Pyrocatechin readily condenses to form heterocyclic compounds; cyclic esters are formed by phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, sulphuryl chloride, &c.; whilst ortho-phenylenediamine, o-aminophenol, and o-aminothiophenol give phenazine, phenoxazine and thiodiphenylamine.
Solid Phosphoretted Hydrogen, P 4 H 2, first obtained by Le Verrier (loc. cit.), is formed by the action of phosphorus trichloride on gaseous phosphine (Besson, Comptes rendus, 111, p. 972); by the action of water on phosphorus di-iodide and by the decomposition of calcium phosphide with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.
They are also formed by the interaction of phosphorus trichloride and zinc alkyls (Cahours and.
761), and also when a solution of phosphorus in the trichloride or tribromide is exposed to light.
Phosphorous acid, P(OH) 3, discovered by Davy in 1812, may be ' obtained by dissolving its anhydride, P 4 0 61 in cold water; by immersing sticks of phosphorus in a solution of copper sulphate contained in a well-closed flask, filtering from the copper sulphide and precipitating the sulphuric acid simultaneously formed by baryta water, and concentrating the solution in vacuo; or by passing chlorine into melted phosphorus covered with water, the first formed phosphorus trichloride being decomposed by the water into phosphorous and hydrochloric acids.
It may also be prepared by leading a current of dry air into phosphorus trichloride at 60° and passing the vapours into water at 0 °, the crystals thus formed being drained, washed with ice-cold water and dried in a vacuum.
Phosphorus trichloride or phosphorous chloride, PC13, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1808, is obtained by passing a slow current of chlorine over heated red phosphorus or through a solution of ordinary phosphorus in carbon disulphide (purifying in the latter case by fractional distillation).
It sublimes when heated, but under pressure it melts at 148°, giving a normal vapour density, but on further heating it dissociates into the trichloride and chlorine; this dissociation may be retarded by vapourizing in an atmosphere of chlorine.
Phosphoryl trichloride or phosphorus oxychloride, POC1 3, corresponding to phosphoric acid, (HO) 3 P0, discovered in 1847 by Wurtz, may be produced by the action of many substances containing hydroxy groups on the pentachloride; from the trichloride and potassium chlorate; by leaving phosphorus pentoxide in contact with hydrochloric acid: 2P 2 0 5 +3HC1= POC13+3HP03; or by heating the pentachloride and pentoxide under pressure: 3PC15+ P205= 5POC1 3.
Pyrophosphoryl chloride, P 2 0 3 C1 4, corresponding to pyrophosphoric acid, was obtained by Geuther and Michaelis (Ber., 1871, 4, P. 766) in the oxidation of phosphorus trichloride with nitrogen peroxide at low temperature; it is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at about 212° with some decomposition.
Thiophosphoryl chloride, PSC1 3, may be obtained by the direct combination of sulphur with the trichloride; from sulphuretted hydrogen and the pentachloride; from antimony trisulphide and the pentachloride; by heating the pentasulphide with the pentachloride; and by dissolving phosphorus in sulphur chloride and distilling the solution: 2P+3S 2 C1 2 = 4S+2PSC1 3.
The dioxide, V 2 0 2, is formed in the reduction of vanadyl trichloride by hydrogen (Roscoe).
The pentoxide, V205, is obtained when ammonium metavanadate is strongly heated, on calcining the sulphide, or by the decomposition of vanadyl trichloride with water.
The trichloride, VC1 31 is a deliquescent solid formed when the tetrachloride is heated in a retort as long as chlorine is given off (Roscoe), or by heating vanadium trisulphide in a current of chlorine and fractionally distilling the resulting product at 150° C. in a current of carbon dioxide (Halberstadt, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1619).
It burns in an atmosphere of chlorine forming the trichloride; it also combines directly with bromine and sulphur on heating, while on fusion with alkalis it forms arsenites.
Arsenic trichloride, AsCl3, is prepared by distilling white arsenic with concentrated sulphuric acid and common salt, or by the direct union of arsenic with chlorine, or from the action of phosphorus pentachloride on white arsenic. It is a colourless oily heavy liquid of specific gravity 2.205 (o° C.), which, when pure and free from chlorine, solidifies at - 18°C., and boils at 132 °C. It is very poisonous and decomposes in moist air with evolution of white fumes.
Arsenic phosphide, AsP, results when phosphine is passed into arsenic trichloride, being precipitated as a red-brown powder.
Three chlorides of indium are known: the trichloride, InC13j a deliquescent salt, formed by heating a mixture of the oxide and carbon in a current of chlorine; the dichloride, InCl2, obtained by heating the metal in hydrochloric acid gas; and the monochloride, InCl, which is prepared by distilling the vapour of the dichloride over metallic indium.
The monoand dichlorides are decomposed by water with the formation of the trichloride, and separation of metallic indium.