Its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
Army corps; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
That it established itself in a set of independent tribunals which remained in standing contrast to the ordinary courts for many hundred years.
For the purposes of a concordat the state recognizes the official status of the church and of its ministers and tribunals; guarantees it certain privileges; and sometimes binds itself to secure for it subsidies representing compensation for past spoliations.
Police.Broadly, the police of France may be divided into two great branchesadministrative police (la police administrative) and judicial police (la police judic-iaire), the former having for its object the maintenance of order, and the latter charged with tracing out offenders, collecting the proofs, and delivering the presumed offenders to the tribunals charged by law with their trial and punishment.
The penal tribunals have jurisdiction in cases involving imprisonment up to ten years, or a fine exceeding 40, while the assize courts, with a jury, deal with offences involving imprisonment for life or over ten years, and have exclusive jurisdiction (except that the senate is on occasion a high court of justice) over all political offences.
Appeal may be made from the sentences of the pretori to the tribunals, and from the tribunals to the courts of appeal; from the assize courts there is no appeal except on a point of form, which appeal goes to the court of cassation at Rome.
As in 1894, excessively severe sentences were passed by the military tribunals upon revolutionary leaders and other persons considered to have been implicated in the outbreak, but successive royal amnesties obliterated these condemnations within three years.
Renard thought he would be executed, but so true a Romanist as Mary could scarcely have an ecclesiastic put to death in consequence of a sentence by a secular court, and Cranmer was reserved for treatment as a heretic by the highest of clerical tribunals, which could not act until parliament had restored the papal jurisdiction.
Baptized persons, could not be exclusively claimed as of right by the Church tribunals, if the subject matter of the cause were purely temporal.
The local church sought recovery of it before the tribunals of the Empire.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
The canon provides that any clerk having a complaint against another clerk must not pass by his own bishop and turn to secular tribunals, but first lay b a re his cause before him, so that by the sentence of the bishop himself the dispute may be settled by arbitrators acceptable to both parties.
With the later 9th century we enter upon a new epoch, and by the time of Gregory VII., in the 11th century, the tribunals have fallen into the hands of a regular class of canonists who are in fact professional church-lawyers in orders.
The " ordinary " ecclesiastical tribunals of the later middle ages still subsist in England, at least as regards the laity.
The tribunals thus subsisting are the courts of the bishop and archbishop, the latter sometimes called the court of appeal of the province.
C. 86 (the " Church Discipline Act ") creates new tribunals; and first a commission of inquiry appointed by the bishop of five persons, of whom the vicar-general, or an archdeacon, or a rural dean of the diocese must be one.
Both these tribunals are new.
In the case of persons in holy orders there is a concurrent jurisdiction of the two tribunals (Valancy v.
(April 8, 1802), no express provision was made for ecclesiastical jurisdictions; but several bishops did create new ecclesiastical tribunals, " officialities " (Migne, Dict.
The government in some cases recognized these tribunals as capable of judging ecclesiastical causes (Migne, ubi sup.).
The Austrian bishops, however, maintain their tribunals for spiritual purposes, and insist that such things as divorced vinculo must be granted by their authority (Aichner, Compendium juris ecclesiastici, pp. 551-553).
Certain religious houses, however, had their own final tribunals and were " peculiars," exempt from any diocesan or patriarchal jurisdiction for at least all causes relating to Church property (ib.
All matrimonial causes are heard by the secular tribunals (Lehr, op. cit.
The royal Inquisition thus started was subversive of the regular tribunals of the bishops, who much resented the innovation, which, however, had the power of the state at its back.
Other tribunals, like that of Seville and under La Suprema, were speedily established in Cordova, Jaen and Toledo.
The sovereigns saw that wealth was beginning to flow in to the new tribunals by means of fines and confiscations; and they obliged Torquemada to take as assessors five persons who would represent them in all matters affecting the royal prerogatives.
Secondly, he established deme law-courts to prevent people from having recourse to the city tribunals; it is said that he himself occasionally "went on circuit," and on one of these occasions was so struck by the plaints of an old farmer on Hymettus, that he remitted all taxation on his land.
The system established by the law of 1864 is remarkable in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate, as the supreme court of cassation.
The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases.
This fact was recognized by the legislators of 1864, and beneath the statutory tribunals created in that year the special courts of the peasants were suffered to survive.
In the ordinary tribunals weight is given to the " customs " of the peasants, even when these conflict with the written law.
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
The reformed tribunals, though incomparably better than their predecessors, did not give universal satisfaction.
Wholesale arrests were made by the police, and many of the accused were imprisoned or exiled to distant provinces, some by the regular tribunals, and others by so-called " administrative procedure " without a formal trial.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.
In this connexion we may note that the disturbances, mainly royalist but sometimes Jacobinical, in several districts of France enabled Bonaparte to propose the establishment in the troubled districts of special tribunals for the trial of all offences tending to disturb the general peace.
The institution of the special tribunals (already referred to), which enabled Bonaparte to supersede local government in thirty-two of the departments, was another outcome of the bomb conspiracy.
His other works are mainly accounts of his travels: Sketches of the Natural, Political and Civil State of Switzerland (London, 1779), Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America (London, 1780), Account of Prisons and Hospitals in Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1781), Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1784), Travels in Switzerland (London, 1789), Letter on Secret Tribunals of Westphalia (London, 1796), Historical Tour in Monmouthshire (London, 1801).
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, training-colleges and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
The Poetelian law (326 B.C.) restricted the creditor's lien (by virtue of a nexum) to the goods of his debtor, and enacted that for the future no debtor should be put in chains; but we hear of debtors addicti to their creditors by the tribunals long after - even in the time of the Punic Wars.
The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefecture, a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, training colleges, a lycee for boys, a communal college for girls, and a branch of the Bank of France.
The preliminaries of the elections of December 1905 and March 1906 being marked by frauds and injustice, the Liberals deserted the polls at those elections, and instead of appealing to judicial tribunals controlled by the Moderates, issued a manifesto of revolution on the 28th of July 1906.1 This insurrection rapidly assumed large proportions.
Lassalle attached himself to the cause of the countess, whom he believed to have been outrageously wronged, made special study of law, and, after bringing the case before thirty-six tribunals, reduced the powerful count to a compromise on terms most favourable to his client.
Agen is the seat of a bishop. It is the seat of a court of appeal and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce and a chamber of commerce.
Even from revolutionary tribunals, however, the name of Lagrange uniformly commanded respect.
Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and music, a library and a rich museum of paintings.
Tribunals and rules are, after all, only machinery.
David Dudley Field, of New York, subsequently enlarged this list, which has been continued under the title International Tribunals, by Dr W.
It also has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
Coloured persons are not, by name, excluded from the franchise, but no persons " subject to special laws and tribunals," 1 in which category all natives are included, are entitled to vote.
This was a period of military tribunals, dragooning, wholesale T Bach confiscation 'and all manner of brutalities.'
Bar-le-Duc has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a lycee, a training-college for girls, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France and an art museum.