The railway by Batoum to Baku by way of Tiflis has tended greatly to turn the channel of commerce from Trebizond into Russian territory, since it helps to open the route to Erivan, Tabriz and the whole of Persia.
The vilayet, of which Trebizond is the chief town, consists of a long irregular strip of coast country, the eastern half of which is deeply indented and mountainous.
The cause of this long duration, and at the same time the secret of its history, is to be found in the isolated position of Trebizond and its district, between the mountains and the sea, which has already been described.
It excited the admiration of Gonzales Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, when he passed through it on his way to visit the court of Timur at Samarkand (Clavijo, Historia del gran Tamorlan, p. 84); and Cardinal Bessarion, who was a native of the place, in the latter part of his life, when the city had passed into the hands of the Mahommedans, and he was himself a dignitary of the Roman Church, so little forgot the impression it had made upon him that he wrote a work entitled "The Praise of Trebizond" ('E-yac c uLovTpaire oiivros), which exists in manuscript at Venice.
From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.
Several interesting monuments of this period remain at Trebizond in the form of churches in the Byzantine style of architecture.
On the farther side of the eastern ravine stands a smaller but very well proportioned structure, the church of St Eugenius, the patron saint of Trebizond, now the Yeni Djuma djami, or New Friday mosque.
From Trebizond, at the side of a rocky glen, at a height of 4000 ft.
Of Trebizond; he rebuilt it in 1360, and richly endowed it.
Meshed had formerly a great transit trade to Central Asia, of European manufactures, mostly Manchester goods, which came by way of Trebizond, Tabriz and Teheran; and of Indian goods and produce, mostly muslins and Indian and green teas, which came by way of Bander Abbasi.
A quarrel with George of Trebizond, the blunders in whose translation of the Almagest he had pointed out, obliged him to quit Rome precipitately in 1468.
Coast of Asia Minor, in the Trebizond vilayet, and the port - an exposed roadstead - of Kara-Hissar Sharki, with which it is connected by a carriage road.
While he was absent upon one of them, his castle was surprised by the governor of Trebizond, and Theodora with her two children were captured and sent to Constantinople.
The steepest incline outside loo fathoms is to the southeast of the Crimea and at Amastra; the incline to the greater depths is also steep off the Caucasus and between Trebizond and Batum.
These duties vary in different parts of the empire: in the vilayets of Constantinople, Bagdad and Adrianople, and in the sanjaks of Bigha and Tchataljatheday'sworkis calculated at 5 piastres (about 11d.); in the vilayets of Aleppo, Trebizond, Angora, lannina, Konia, Sivas and Kastamuni at 4 piastres (about 9d.); and in most other parts of the empire at 3 piastres (about 7d.).
The trade of Persia with the west now passes either through the ports of the Persian Gulf or northward over Trebizond, while India communicates with the west directly through the Suez Canal.
It was one of the chief towns of the kingdom of Trebizond and of the Seljuks, one of whose sultans, Kaikobad I., enriched it with fine buildings and restored the castle, which was thus enabled to stand a seven months' siege by Timur.
Soon after the great earthquake of 1509, which laid Constantinople in ruins, Selim, the ungovernable pasha of Trebizond, whose vigorous rule in Asia had given Europe an earnest of his future career as sultan, appeared before Adrianople, where Bayezid had sought refuge.
His route to the East lay by Trebizond and Erzerum to Tabriz and Sultanieh, in all of which places the order had houses.
The great trade route from Trebizond by Erzerum into N.W.
He then reluctantly turned back by way of Herat, where he took leave of the dervishes, and returned with a caravan to Teheran, and subsequently, in March 1864, through Trebizond and Erzerum to Constantinople.
But the fringe of coast-land from Trebizond westward is one of the most beautiful parts of Asia Minor and is justly extolled by Strabo for its wonderful productiveness.
The sea-coast, like the rest of the south shore of the Euxine, was studded with Greek colonies founded from the 6th century onwards: Amisus, a colony of Miletus, which in the 5th century received a body of Athenian settlers, now the port of Samsun; Cotyora, now Ordu; Cerasus, the later Pharnacia, now Kerasund; and Trapezus (Trebizond), a famous city from Xenophon's time till the end of the middle ages.
SAMSUN (anc. Amisus), the chief town of the Janik sanjak of the Trebizond vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, situated on the S.
A carriage-road leads to Trebizond, and other roads to Sivas, Karahissar, Erzerum and Kharput.
Tabriz was for a long period the emporium for the trade of Persia on the west, but since the opening of the railway through the Caucasus and greater facilities for transport on the Caspian, much of its trade with Russia has been diverted to Astara and Resht, while the insecurity on the Tabriz-Trebizond route since 1878 has diverted much commerce to the Bagdad road.
On this occasion he was fortunate enough to take prisoner the'Comnenian prince (Alexius) who ruled the independent empire of Trebizond, and he compelled him to purchase his liberty by acknowledging the supremacy of the Seljuks, by paying tribute, and by serving in the armies of the sultan.
This unworthy son inherited from his father an empire embracing almost the whole of Asia Minor, with the exception of the countries governed by Vatatzes (Vataces) and the Christian princes of Trebizond and Lesser Armenia, who, however, were bound to pay tribute and to serve in the armies - an empire celebrated by contemporary reports for its wealth.'
Several important routes from Trebizond and various parts of Anatolia converge towards it from the west.
Situated on the main road from Trebizond into north-west Persia, the town has always a large caravan traffic, principally of camels, but since the improvement of communications in Russia this has declined.
A good carriage-road leads to the coast at Trebizond, the journey being made in five or six days.
Capuchins: Aden and Arabia, India (dioceses of Agra, Allahabad, Lahore), Seychelles, Eritrea (Red Sea), Gallas, Cephalonia, Trebizond, Mardin, Crete, Caroline Islands, Araucania, Brazil, Bulgaria.
The first of these consists of about 4000 lines, written in the so-called "political" metre, and was discovered in the latter part of the 19th century, in a 16th-century MS., at Trebizond; the other three MSS.
Editions of the Trebizond MS. by C. Sathas and E.
GEORGE OF TREBIZOND (1395-1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world, was born in the island of Crete, and derived his surname Trapezuntios from the fact that his ancestors were from Trebizond.
Bernardo (1408-1489), son of Leonardo, was a pupil of Guarino and of George of Trebizond, and entered the Venetian senate at an early age.
The date of the foundation of these colonies cannot be fixed; but at an early period they formed a chain of settlements from Trebizond to Rhodes, and by the 8th century B.C. some of them rivalled the splendour of Tyre and Sidon.
(1451-1481) of Karamania and Trebizond, and the abandonment of the last of the Italian trading settlements which had studded the coast during the 13th and 14th centuries.
8 Konia, 9 Trebizond, 10 Sivas, 11 Adana.
Trade of Van has declined; European goods, with which the bazaars are fairly well supplied, come from Trebizond through Erzerum.
STURDZA, or Sturza, the name of an ancient Rumanian family, of unknown origin, which probably came from Trebizond and settled in Moldavia.
1~r,roLva), daughter of the emperor of Trebizond, Cab Johannes of the house of the Comneni; and Zenos wife was niece to this Christian princess.
One of these trade routes passed up the Persian Gulf to Basra, and thence overland to Tripoli, for Mediterranean ports, and to Trebizond, for Constantinople.
Although the cultivation of opium in Persia was probably carried on at an earlier date than in India, Persian opium was almost unknown in England until about the year 1870, except in the form of the inferior quality known as " Trebizond," which usually contains only 0.2 to 3% of morphia.
About half of the total produce finds its way to the Chinese market, chiefly by sea to Hongkong and the Federated Malay States, although some is carried overland through Bokhara, Khokand and Kashgar; a small quantity is exported by way of Trebizond and Samsun to Constantinople, and about 2000 piculs to Great Britain.
He maintained himself stubbornly in defensive campaigns against the Latin emperor Henry, defeated his rival Alexius Comnenus of Trebizond, and carried out a successful counter-attack upon Gayath-ed-din, the sultan of Koniah, who had been instigated to war by the deposed Alexius III.
JOHANNES BESSARION, or Basilius (c. 1395-1472), titular patriarch of Constantinople, and one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century, was born at Trebizond, the year of his birth being variously given as 1389, 1 395 or 1403.
Besides his translations of Aristotle's Metaphysics and Xenophon's Memorabilia, his most important work is a treatise directed against George of Trebizond, a violent Aristotelian, entitled In Calumniatorem Platonis.
A younger line of the original house, after the establishment of the Latins at Constantinople in 1204, secured possession of a fragment of the empire in Asia Minor, and founded the empire of Trebizond, which lasted till 1461, when David Comnenus, the last emperor, was deposed by Mahommed II.
The most important commercial emporium was the Danubian port of Galatz, which was frequented by vessels from the whole of the Levant from Trebizond to Barbary.
In 1282 he was sent on an embassy to John II., emperor of Trebizond, and died in the same year soon after his return.
BAIBURT, a town of Asiatic Turkey, on the direct carriage road from Trebizond to Erzerum, situated on both banks of the Churuk river, which here traverses an open cultivated plateau (altitude, 510o ft.), before turning east.
Xviii., Tiflis, 1896, with map), the population of the nine Turkish vilayets, Erzerum, Van, Bitlis, Kharput (Mamuret-el-Aziz), Diarbekr, Sivas, Aleppo, Adana and Trebizond, was 6,000,000 (Armenians, 913,875, or 15%; other Christians, 632,875, or 11%; and Moslems, 4,453,250, or 74%).
The fall of the Biainian kingdom, perhaps overthrown by Cyaxares; was apparently soon followed by an immigration of Aryan (Medo-Persian) races, including the progenitors of the Armenians» But they spread slowly, for the "Ten Thousand," when crossing the plateau to Trebizond, 401-400 B.C., met no Armenians after leaving the villages four days' march beyond the Teleboas, now Kara Su.
Meanwhile there had been a massacre at Trebizond (October 8), in which armed men from Constantinople took part, and it had become evident that no united action on the part of the powers was to be feared.
At Trebizond they took lace sacres.