It is situated on the right bank of the Maros, on the outskirts of the Transylvanian Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains, and consists of the upper town, or citadel, and the lower town.
In the 16th century, when Transylvania separated from Hungary, the town became the residence of the Transylvanian princes.
Bethlen no sooner felt firmly seated on his throne than he seized the opportunity presented to him by the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War to take up arms in defence of the liberties and the constitution of the extra-Transylvanian Hungarian provinces, with the view of more effectually assuring his own position.
To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and presenting in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, universal in its scope.
The greatest elevations are in the Tatra mountains of the north of Hungary proper, in the east and south of Transylvania (the Transylvanian Alps) and in the eastern portion of the Banat.
Only the Zsil, the Aluta and the Bodza or Buzeu pierce the Transylvanian Alps, and flow into the Danube outside Hungary.
From the Transylvanian counties there is an emigration to Rumania and the Balkan territories of 4000 or 5000 persons yearly.
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
Thousands of Transylvanian gentlemen emigrated to Turkey to get out of his reach.
Fortunately a peculiarly shameless attempt to blackmail Stephen Bocskay, a rich and powerful Transylvanian nobleman, converted a long Bocskay (q.v.), a quiet but resolute man, having once made up his mind to rebel, never paused till he had established satisfactory relations between the Austrian court and the Hungarians.
Their reigns synchronized with the Thirty Years' War, during which the emperors were never in a position seriously to withstand the attacks of the malcontent Magyars, the vast majority of whom were still Protestants, who naturally looked upon the Transylvanian princes as their protectors and joined them in thousands whenever they raided Moravia or Lower Austria, or threatened to advance upon Vienna.
This falls into three main groups: Diplomata (30 vols.); Scriptores (40 vols.); Monumenta Comitialia (records of the Hungarian and Transylvanian diets, 12 vols.
The exhaustion of the nation from its protracted civil and foreign wars, the extinction of the decline (1711court of the Transylvanian princes where the native 1772).
By the Transylvanian Alps, S.
In 1514 the peasant leader, Stephan Dozsa, was defeated by the Transylvanian voivod, John Zapolya, near Temesvar, captured and executed.
The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau.
(b) The eastern or wooded Carpathians extend from the river Poprad to the sources of the river Viso and the Golden Bistritza, whence the Transylvanian Mountains begin, and form the link between these mountains and the central groups or High Carpathians.
The western and central Carpathians are much more accessible than the eastern Carpathians and the Transylvanian Mountains.
The highest parts in the High Tatra and in the Transylvanian Mountains have a flora similar to that of the Alps, more specially that of the middle region.
BE.) KALNdKY, [[Gustav Siegmund, Count]] (1832-1898), AustroHungarian statesman, was born at Lettowitz, in Moravia, on the 29th of December 1832, of an old Transylvanian family which had held countly rank in Hungary from the 17th century.
Kolcsey's early metrical pieces contributed to the Transylvanian Museum did not attract much attention, whilst his severe criticisms of Csokonai, Kis, and especially Berzsenyi, published in 1817, rendered him very unpopular.
In the fertile valley of the Cibin (Hungarian, Szeben), encircled on all sides by the Transylvanian Alps.
It is the seat of a Greek Orthodox (Rumanian) archbishop, and of the superintendent of the Protestants for the Transylvanian circle.
These are known under the general name of Transylvanian Mountains, which are the southeastern continuation of the Carpathian system, and fill the interior of the country with their ramifications.
These German colonists were granted special privileges, and founded many of the Transylvanian towns.
Transylvanian Mountains >>
A feature of Kolozsvár is the large number of handsome mansions belonging to the Transylvanian nobles, who reside here during the winter.
It is the seat of a Unitarian bishop, and of the superintendent of the Calvinists for the Transylvanian circle.
As capital of Transylvania and the seat of the Transylvanian diets, Kolozsvar from 1830 to 1848 became the centre of the Hungarian national movement in the grand principality; and in December 1848 it was taken and garrisoned by the Hungarians under General Bern.
Along the inner edge of this crescent run the Carpathian Mountains, also called, towards their western extremity, the Transylvanian Mountains or Transylvanian Alps; and the frontier which marks off Rumania from Hungary is drawn along their crests.
From its Transylvanian source through Moldavia, and meets the Danube near Galatz, after receiving the Moldova, Bistritza (Bistrita), Trotosh (Trotosu), Milcovu, Putna, Ran-midi and Buzéu on the west; and the Berlad (Birladii) on the east.
The axis of the Transylvanian Alps consists of sericite schists and other similar rocks; and these are followed on the south by Jurassic, Cretaceous and Early Tertiary beds.
In its fauna, Walachia has far more affinity to the lands lying south of the Danube than to Transylvania, although several species of Claudilia, once regarded as exclusively Transylvanian, are found south of the Carpathians.
The presence of petroleum, indicated by many ancient workings in the shape of shallow hand- (dug wells, can be traced continuously at the foot of the Transylvanian Alps, from Turnu Severin into Bukovina.
They have been taught, originally in the interests of Transylvanian Roman Catholicism, to regard themselves as true descendants of the Romans.
Michael withdrew to the mountains before this overwhelming force, but, being joined by Báthory with a Transylvanian contingent, the voivode resumed the offensive, stormed Bucharest, where Sinan had entrenched a Turkish detachment, and, pursuing the main body of his forces to the Danube, overtook the rearguard and cut it to pieces, capturing enormous booty.
The partiality that he showed for the Ruman and Szekler parts of the population alienated, however, the Transylvanian Saxons, who preferred the direct government of the emperor.
In conjunction with Basta he defeated the superior Transylvanian forces at Goroslo, expelling Sigismund Bfithory, who had again aspired to the crown, and taking one hundred and fifty flags and forty-five cannon.
The old capital, Tirgovishtea, was considered by the Divan to be too near the Transylvanian frontier, and the voivodes were accordingly compelled to transfer their residence to Bucharest, which was finally made the seat of government in 1698.
But the Latin or Transylvanian movement wrought great havoc in Rumanian literature and caused the greatest confusion in the language.
About this time he turned to philology, and fell under the spell of the Transylvanian school.
1848) describes the life of the people, notably of the Transylvanian peasants, in short stories, Nuvele din popor.
In 1599 a fire destroyed the greater part of the town, and during the 17th century it suffered repeatedly at the hands of the Transylvanian princes and leaders.
No distinct trace of anti-Trinitarian opinion precedes the appearance of Blandrata at the Transylvanian court in 1563.
On the east of this river, three vast ranges, the Transylvanian Alps, the Balkans and Rhodope, encroach upon Servian soil; while on the west there is a chaos of mountain masses, outliers of the Bosnian and Albanian highlands.
The chief navigable river of Servia is the Danube, which enters the country at Belgrade and pierces the Transylvanian Alps by way of the Kazan (i.e.