C. angolensis, the Transvaal G.
But the Transvaal War of 1899-1902, to which Australia sent 6310 volunteers (principally mounted rifles), and the gradual increase of military sentiment, brought the question more to the front, and more and more attention was given to making Australian defence a matter of local concern.
Of the western frontier of the Transvaal and 15 m.
BARBERTON, a town of the Transvaal, 283 m.
ZEERUST, a town of the Transvaal, 149 m.
Duncan's map of the Orange River State (1:148,705; 1902-1904) and Jeppe's map of the Transvaal (1:476,000; 1899).
The appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances, and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments.
The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal."
On the 4th of May Milner penned a memorable despatch to the Colonial Office, in which he insisted that the remedy for the unrest in the Transvaal was to strike at the root of the evil - the political impotence of the injured.
Milner felt that only the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders in the Transvaal would give stability to the South African situation.
He had not based his case against the Transvaal on the letter of the Conventions, and regarded the employment of the word "suzerainty" merely as an "etymological question," but he realized keenly that the spectacle of thousands of British subjects in the Transvaal in the condition of "helots" (as he expressed it) was undermining the prestige of Great Britain throughout South Africa, and he called for "some striking proof" of the intention of the British government not to be ousted from its predominant position.
Milner then made the enactment by the Transvaal of a franchise law which would at once give the Johannesburgers a share in the government of the country his main, and practically his only, demand.
The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field.
Immediately following the conclusion of peace Milner published (June 21) the Letters Patent establishing the system of crown colony government in the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, and exchanging his title of administrator to that of governor.
In the latter part of 1904 and the early months of 1905 Lord Milner was engaged on the elaboration of a scheme to provide the Transvaal with a system of "representative" government, a half-way house between crown colony administration and that of self-government.
It is joined to the trunk railway from Port Elizabeth to the Transvaal by a branch line from Smaldeel, 28 m.
KRUGERSDORP, a town of the Transvaal, 21 m.
By the Transvaal and Portuguese East Africa.
Northwest, towards the Transvaal, the mountains are of lower elevation and more rounded contours.
The Pongola rises in the Transvaal in high ground N.E.
Utrecht (860) lies between Newcastle and Vryheid, and was one of the first towns founded by the Transvaal Boers.
Beyond Charlestown reaches the Transvaal frontier at mile 307.
The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
The bulk of these exports are to the Transvaal and neighbouring countries, and previously figure as imports, other exports, largely wool and hides, are first imported from the Transvaal.
Smellekamp (a man who subsequently played a part in the early history of the Transvaal and Orange Free State), concluded a treaty with the volksraad assuring them of the protection of Holland.
Many of the Boers who would not acknowledge British rule trekked once more over the mountains into what are now the Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.
In a dispute between the Transvaal and the Orange Free State he decided (February 1870) that the Klip river and not the upper Vaal was the frontier stream.
They showed indeed in their dealings both with the natives within their borders and with the Zulus beyond the Tugela a disposition to favour the natives at the expense of their white neighbours in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their action against Langalibalele was fully justified and the danger of a widespread native revolt real.
For some years Natal, in common with the other countries of South Africa, had suffered from the absence of anything resembling a strong government among the Boers of the Transvaal, neighbours of Natal on the north.
The annexation of the Transvaal to Great Britain, effected by Sir Theophilus Shepstone in April 1877, would, it was hoped, put a period to the disorders in that country.
These promises were not kept for long, and by 1878 his attitude had become so hostile towards both the Natal and Transvaal governments that Sir Bartle Frere, then High Commissioner for South Africa, determined on his reduction.
C.) Scarcely had the colony recovered from the shock of the Zulu War than it was involved in the revolt of the Transvaal Boers (1880-1881), an event which overshadowed all domestic concerns.
The Transvaal Republic was established, but the prediction of the colonists, ignored at the time, was afterwards fulfilled to the letter.
In justice, however, to the colonists of Natal it must be recorded that, finding their protest with regard to the Transvaal settlement useless, they made up their minds to shape their policy in conformity with that settlement.
In 1884 the discovery of gold in De Kaap Valley, and on Mr Moodie's farm in the Transvaal, caused a considerable rush of colonists from Natal to that country.
Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal not only sent her own colonists to the new fields, but also offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony or from Europe.
Two years later, in 1886, the Rand goldfields were proclaimed, and the tide of trade which had already set in with the Transvaal steadily increased.
In this year (1886) the railway reached Ladysmith, and in 18 9 1 it was completed to the Transvaal frontier at Charlestown, the section from Ladysmith northward opening up the Dundee and Newcastle coalfields.
As the nearest colony to the Transvaal, Natal was resorted to by a large number of men, women and children, who were compelled to leave the Transvaal on the outbreak of the war.
In consideration of the advantage to Natal from this addition of territory, Natal should take over £70o,000 of the Transvaal debt.
It was proposed to include in Natal such portions of the Harrismith and Vrede districts as were comprised by a line following the Elands river north from its source on the Basutoland border to its junction with the Wilge river, and thence drawn straight to the point where the boundaries of Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony meet on the Drakensberg.
For this course there were many reasons, the Transvaal territory annexed, or the greater part of it (the Vryheid district), having been only separated from the rest of Zululand in 1883 by a raid of armed Boers.
It was suppressed by the colonial forces under Colonel (afterwards Sir) Duncan McKenzie, aided by a detachment of Transvaal volunteers.
Not long after the conclusion of the war of1899-1902the close commercial relations between the Transvaal and Natal led to suggestions for a union of the two colonies, but these suggestions were not seriously entertained.
Meantime it was agreed by the Cape, Transvaal and Natai governments that, subject to Natal entering the Union, its share of the Rand import trade should be 25% before and 30% after the establishment of the Union.
The boundaries of the Transvaal have varied from time to time.
For a few miles on the Natal-Transvaal frontier the Drakensberg run east and west and here is the pass of Laing's Nek.
This eastern edge forms the frontier between Transvaal and Portuguese territory.
The absence of alluvial deposits of any size is another characteristic of the Transvaal rivers.
A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.
The following subdivisions have been recognized by Molengraaff Karroo System, Transvaal System, Vaal River System, South African Primary System.
The chief outcrops are in the south-western Transvaal, around Zoutpansberg and in Swaziland.
In the southern Transvaal to 5000 ft.
The Karroo System attains its chief development in the southeastern Transvaal in the districts of Ermelo, Standerton and Wakkerstroom.