In shallow seas the transparency is always reduced in rough weather.
The dressed sheets are sorted according to size, transparency, colour and freedom from spots or stains.
If the aether were itself constituted of discrete molecules, on the model of material bodies, such transparency would not be conceivable.
There is a distinct relationship between colour and transparency in the ocean; the most transparent water which is the most free from plankton is always the purest blue, while an increasing turbidity is usually associated with an increasing tint of green.
His work won him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1838, and in 1843 he received its Royal medal for a paper on the "Transparency of the Atmosphere and the Laws of Extinction of the Sun's Rays passing through it."
The greatest transparency hitherto reported is in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean, where J.
Let us now imagine what degree of transparency of air is admitted by its molecular constituents, viz.
As A m is a wave-length corresponding to an absorption band, this formula can be used to find values of A m which satisfy the observed values of n within the region of transparency, and so to determine where the absorption bands are situated.
The shore is composed of a belt of smooth rounded white stones like paving-stones, excepting one or two short sand beaches, and is so steep that in many places a single leap will carry you into water over your head; and were it not for its remarkable transparency, that would be the last to be seen of its bottom till it rose on the opposite side.
In depth, and its waters are remarkable for their transparency and refractive powers.
Its transparency allows us to see even to the pole star, who is the central sun around whom all the heavenly bodies move.
Sometimes this principle has weight, and sometimes it has not; sometimes it is free fire and sometimes it is fire combined with the earthy element; sometimes it passes through the pores of vessels, sometimes these are impervious to it; it explains both causticity and non-causticity, transparency and opacity, colours and their absence; it is a veritable Proteus changing in form at each instant."
The blood loses its transparency and becomes milky, its volume increases so that the skin cannot hold it, and it escapes through the pores.
When chemically pure, which is rarely the case, blende is colourless and transparent; usually, however, the mineral is yellow, brown or black, and often opaque, the depth of colour and degree of transparency depending on the amount of iron present.
Within, the palace is unsurpassed for the exquisite detail of its marble pillars and arches, its fretted ceilings and the veil-like transparency of its filigree work in stucco.
Its mission statement is to demand transparency after a crime is committed and to assure all efforts to nail the guilty party are being pursued.
There are some observations on the transparency of sea-water of an entirely different character.
Any influence on transparency which may be exercised by the temperature or salinity of the water is quite insignificant.
The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.
(Slightly altered from Kirkaldy.) rm and lm, Right and left metapleur; at, atriopore; an, anus; e, " eyespot" at anterior end of neurochord projecting beyond the myotomes (my); n, notochord; rgo, gonads of right side only showing through by transparency; go 20, the last gonad; dfr, dorsal fin with fin chambers and fin rays; vfc, ventral fin chambers.
Long and of glassy transparency, except in one or two spots which are dark brown.
The presence of these enclosed impurities impairs the transparency of crystals.
To prove this, it will be sufficient to mention that an exceedingly small deficiency in the transparency of the free aether would be sufficient to prevent the light of the fixed stars from reaching the earth, since their distances are so immense.
When the ordinary form immersed in water is exposed to light, it gradually loses its transparency and becomes coated with a thin film.
The first essential is an elevated observatory; the next is a long series of bolographs taken at different times of the year and of the day, to examine the effect of interposing different thicknesses of air and its variation in transparency (chiefly due to water vapour).
It is found that atmospheric absorption is generally greater in summer than in winter, a difference of 20% being found between March and August; morning hours show a rapid and often irregular increase of transparency, culminating shortly after noon, after which the diminution is slow and comparatively regular.
The latter possibility is also suggested by the curious fact that the visibility of the light does not seem to be proportional to the transparency of the atmosphere.
The temperature required in the fusion of sheet-glass and of other glasses produced in tank furnaces is much lower than that attained in steel furnaces, and it is consequently pos Since the discovery of the Rntgen rays, experiments have been made to ascertain the effects of the different constituents of glass on the transparency of glass to X-rays.
The transparency of sea-water has frequently been measured at sea by the simple expedient of sinking white-painted disks and noting the depth at which they become invisible as the measure of the transparency of the water.
In diameter are sufficient for this purpose, but in the tropics, where the transparency is much greater, disks 3 ft.
Tyndall's investigations of the transparency and opacity of gases and vapours for radiant heat, which occupied him during many years (1859-1871), are frequently considered his chief scientific work.
Such adaptations are the transparency and colourlessness of the tissues, and the modifications of the foot, which still shows in Atlanta the form common in Pectin:branchia (compare fig.
On account of its transparency and its resistance to fire and sudden changes of temperature, mica has been much used for the windows of stoves and lanterns, for the peep-holes of furnaces, and the chimneys of lamps and gas-burners.
In the North Sea north of the Dogger Bank, for instance, the disk is visible in calm weather to a depth of from io to 16 fathoms, but in rough weather only to 62 fathoms. Knipovitch occasionally observed great transparency in the cold waters of the Murman Sea, where he could see the disk in as much as 25 fathoms, and a similar phenomenon has often been reported from Icelandic waters.
This need not necessarily be interpreted as indicating the impossibility of rendering gases luminous by temperature only, for the transparency of the gas for luminous radiations may be such that the emission is too weak to be detected.
Microscopical examination of the wings, moreover, has shown that the transparency of the wings, common to all, has been acquired by a different modification of the scales in each of the genera exhibiting the Ithomiine type of coloration.
The cells of the filament may be all alike, and growth may occur equally in all parts (Oscillatoriaceae); or certain cells (heterocysts) may become marked off by their larger size and the transparency of their contents; in which case growth may still be distributed equally throughout (Nostoc), or the filament may be attached where the heterocyst arises, and grow out at the opposite extremity into a fine hair (Rivulariaceae).
The quadrangular mouth is seen in the centre; the outline of the stomach wall, seen by transparency around it, is nipped in four places interradially to form the four gastric ridges.
The tank is filled with water, which is kept in agitation by means of a reciprocating paddle or piston; in this way the air escapes, and with proper care a block of great transparency is produced.
The liquid metals, when cooled down sufficiently, some at lower, others at higher, temperatures freeze into compact solids, endowed with the (relative) non-transparency and the lustre of their liquids.
Luksch found the disk visible as a rule to from 22 to 27 fathoms, and off the Syrian coast even to 33 fathoms. In the open Atlantic there are `great differences in transparency; Kriimmel observed a 6 ft.
Schott gives the following as the result of measurements of transparency by means of a white disk at 23 stations in the open ocean, where quantitative observations of the plankton under i square metre of surface were made at the same time.
The otocysts of Cyclas are peculiarly favourable for study on account of the transparency of the small foot in which they lie, and may be taken as typical of those of Lamellibranchs generally.
Platinized platinum (platinum foil upon which a thin film of platinum had been deposited electrolytically) and charcoal were rendered incandescent, black paper and matches immediately inflamed, ordinary brown paper pierced and burned, while thin white blotting-paper, owing to its transparency to the invisible rays, was scarcely tinged.
The price of mica varies very considerably according to the size, transparency and quality of the sheets.
Transparency and Freedom from Colour.
The question of the transparency of the celestial spaces presents itself in the present connexion.