These rights, which are heritable but not transferable, protect the tenant against eviction, except for default in payment of rent, while the rent may not be enhanced except by mutual agreement or by order of a revenue court.
By sanad (or patent) and by legislation the talukdars were declared to possess permanent, heritable and transferable rights, with the special privilege of alienation, either in lifetime or by will, notwithstanding the limits imposed by Hindu or Mahommedan law.
Thus they became transferable to laymen and saleable like ordinary property, in spite of the injunctions of the third Lateran Council, and they became payable out of sources of income which were not originally tithable.
The following figures for1905-1906may, however, be given: valuation of lands, houses, &c., £15,466,000; value of principal crops, £35,3 62, 000; value of cattle, &c., £81,508,000; paid-up capital and reserve funds of joint-stock banks, £11,300,000; deposits in jointstock and savings banks, £58,791,000; investments in government stock, transferable at Bank of Ireland, £36,952,000; paid-up capital and debentures of railway companies, £38,405,000; paid-up capital of tramway companies, £2,074,000.
The practice of giving land as a beneficium to a grantee who swore personal allegiance to the grantor had persisted, and by his capitularies Charlemagne had made these personal engagements, these contracts of immunityhitherto not transferable, nor even for life, but quite conditionalregular, legal, even obligatory and almost indissoluble.