In 1894 the Russian government enforced new customs regulations, by which a heavy duty is levied on Anglo-Indian manufactures and produce, excepting pepper, ginger and drugs, imported into Russian Asia by way of Persia; and the importation of green teas is altogether prohibited except by way of Batum, Baku, Uzunada and the Transcaspian railway.
Russia possesses large deposits of sulphur in Daghestan in Transcaucasia, and in the Transcaspian steppes.
There the Volga, the Ural, the Syr-darya and the Amu-darya discharge their waters without reaching the ocean, but they bring life to the rapidly desiccating Transcaspian steppes, and link together the most remote parts of Russia.
Another line of great strategic importance was built across the Transcaspian territory to Ferghana.
In addition large quantities are shipped at Baku direct for the Volga and the Transcaspian port of Krasnovodsk.
By the Caspian Sea and Russian Transcaspian, S.
MERV, Meru or Maur, an oasis and town of Asia, in the Transcaspian province of Russia.
NEW Merv, the present chief town of the oasis, founded in the first quarter of the 19th century, is on the Transcaspian railway, 380 m.
JIZAKH, a town of Russian Central Asia, in the province of Samarkand, on the Transcaspian railway, 71 m.
ASKABAD, or Askhabad, a town of Russian central Asia, capital of the Transcaspian province, 345 m.
From the Bokhara station of the Transcaspian railway, 162 m.
GEOK-TEPE, a former fortress of the Turkomans, in Russian Transcaspia, in the oasis of Akhal-tekke, on the Transcaspian railway, 28 m.
ANDIJAN, a town of Russian Turkestan, Province of Ferghana, eastern terminus of the Transcaspian railway, 84 m.
It lies on the right bank of the middle Oxus, between 37° and 41° N., and between 62° and 72° E., and is bounded by the Russian governments of Syr-darya, Samarkand and Ferghana on the N., the Pamirs on the E., Afghanistan on the S., and the Transcaspian territory and Khiva on the W.
Trade has been greatly promoted by the building of the Transcaspian railway across the country (from Charjui on the Oxus to Kati-kurgan) in 1886-1888.
These, which go down to depths of 700 to 1700 ft., yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled; while the heavier residue (mazut) is used as lubricating oil and for fuel, for instance in the locomotives of the Transcaspian railway.
It is separated from (3), the southern and deepest section of the Caspian, by a submarine ridge (30 to 150 fathoms of water), which links the main range of the Caucasus on the west with the Kopet-dagh in the Transcaspian region on the east.
The development of the petroleum industry in the Apeshron peninsula (Baku) and the opening (1886) of the Transcaspian railway have greatly increased the traffic across the Caspian Sea.
By the Caspian Sea and the Russian Transcaucasian and Transcaspian territories, on the E.
From the sea to the Russian frontier post of Chat the river forms the frontier between Persia and the Russian Transcaspian region.
And 590 E., in the mountains of the north-east of the Persian province of Khorasan, and flows west along the borders of Persia and the Russian Transcaspian province, till it falls, after a course of 350 m., into the south-eastern corner of the Caspian, a short distance north-north-west of Astarabad.
With Russian Transcaspian territory, W.
A new impulse was given to trade by the extension (1899) of the Transcaspian railway into Ferghana and by the opening of the Orenburg-Tashkent railway (1906).
Since the growth of the petroleum industry of Baku and the construction of the Transcaspian railway, Astrakhan has become an important commercial centre, exporting fish, caviare, sugar, metals, naphtha, cottons and woollens, and importing grain, cotton, fruit and timber, to the aggregate value of £8,250,000 with foreign countries and of £14,500,doo with the interior of Russia.
This low range, which most probably separated the lowlands of the AralCaspian region (submerged during the Post-Pliocene period) from the higher plains which had emerged by the end of the Tertiary period, now divides the Transcaspian steppes from the somewhat different higher plains.
The loess stretches out over terraces at some distance from the mountains.
A few showers are all that fall from the almost invariably cloudless sky above the Transcaspian steppes.
Successful attempts are being made to grow the tea-plant in the Transcaspian region.
The Turkomans inhabit chiefly the Transcaspian region.
Turkestan possesses only two railway systems; the Transcaspian line and the Orenburg-Tashkent line.