Toulon - - - 53,941 70,843 87,997
Cenis Tunnel) and via Dijon and Pontarlier (for the Simplon), and also has a direct line along the Mediterranean coast from Marseilles to Genoa via Toulon and Nice.
These prisons received all sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, the long-term convicts going to the bagnes (the great convict prisons at the arsenals of Rochefort, Brest and Toulon), while in 1851 transportation to penal colonies was adopted.
The colonial army corps, headquarters at Paris, has three divisions, at Paris, Toulon and Brest.
Of the coast defences the principal are Toulon, Antibes, Rochefort, Lorient, Brest, Olron, La Rochelle, BelleIsle, Cherbourg,St-Malo, Havre, Calais, Gravelines and Dunkirk A number of the older fortresses, dating for the most part from Louis XIV.s time, are still in existence, but are no longer of military importance.
Other schools are the school of naval medicine at Bordeaux with annexes at Toulon, Brest and Rochefort; schools of torpedoes and mines and of gunnery at Toulon, &c., &c. The coles dhydro graphic established at various ports are for theoretical training for the higher grades of the merchant service.
Roustan therefore hastened to extort from the bey concessions calculated to neutralize the advantages which Italy had hoped to secure by the possession of the Tunis- Goletta line, and at the same time the French government prepared at Toulon an expeditionary corps for the occupation of the Regency.
The outset of his administration was marked by Franco-Italian fetes at Toulon (10th to I4th April 1901), when the Italian fleet returned a visit paid by the French Mediterranean squadron to Cagliari in April 1899; and by the despatch of three Italian warships to Prevesa to obtain satisfaction for damage done to Italian subjects by Turkish officials.
In the summer of 1891 the visit to Kronstadt of a French squadron under Admiral Gervais was made the occasion for an enthusiastic demonstration in favour of a Franco-Russian alliance; and two years later (October 1893) a still more enthusiastic reception was given to the Russian Admiral Avelan and his officers when they visited Toulon and Paris.
The arrival of the Bonapartes at Toulon coincided with a time of acute crisis in the fortunes of the republic. Having declared war on England and Holland (1st of February 1793), and against Spain (9th of March), France was soon girdled by foes; and the forces of the first coalition invaded her territory at several points.
The royalists of Toulon had admitted British and Spanish forces to share in the defence of that stronghold (29th of August 1793).
The blow to the republican cause was most serious: for from Toulon as a centre the royalists threatened to raise a general revolt throughout the south of France, and Pitt cherished hopes of dealing a death-blow to the Jacobins in that quarter.
Told off to serve in the army of Nice, he was detained by a special order of the commissioners of the Convention, Saliceti and Gasparin, who, hearing of the severe wound sustained by Dommartin, the commander of the artillery of the republican forces before Toulon, ordered Bonaparte to take his place.
He arrived at the republican headquarters, then at 0111oules on the north-west of Toulon, on the 16th of September; and it is noteworthy that as early as September 10th the commissioners had seen the need of attacking the allied fleet and had paid some attention to the headland behind l'Eguillette, which commanded both the outer and the inner harbour.
Thereafter he resided successively at Toulon, St Tropez and Antibes, doing useful work in fortifying the coast and using his spare time in arduous study of the science of war.
General du Teil, younger brother of the baron, had recently published a work, L' Usage de l'artillerie nouvelle; and it is now known that Bonaparte derived from this work and from those of Guibert and Bourcet that leading principle, concentration of effort against one point of the enemy's line, which he had advocated at Toulon and which he everywhere put in force in his campaigns.
The Toulon fleet set sail on the 19th of May; and when the other contingents from the ports of France and Italy joined the flag, the armada comprised thirteen sail of the line, fourteen frigates, many smaller warships and some three hundred transports.
The memoirs (which may be accepted as mainly Napoleon's, though Montholon undoubtedly touched them up) range over most of the events of his life from Toulon to Marengo.
Colin, L'Education militaire de Napoleon (Paris, 1900); P. Cottin, Toulon et les Anglais 1 793 (Paris, 1898); H.
Fox, Napoleon Bonaparte and the Siege of Toulon (Washington, 1902); H.
In February "Soo, the " Genereux " (74), one of the few ships which escaped from the Nile, sailed from Toulon with three corvettes, under Rear-admiral Puree, to relieve Malta.
He sailed on the 23rd of January 1801, entered the Mediterranean and, his squadron being in a bad condition, steered for Toulon, which he reached on the 18th of February.
With the other four he reached the coast of Egypt, on the 7th of May, only, to sight a powerful British force, and to be compelled to escape to Toulon, which he did not reach till the 22nd of July.
On the 13th of June 1801 Rear-admiral Linois left Toulon with three sail of the line, to join a Spanish squadron at Cadiz and go on to Egypt.
In July 1804 he ordered his admiral commanding at Toulon, Latouche Treville, to seize an opportunity when Nelson, who was in command of the blockade, was driven off by a northerly gale, to put to sea, with 1 0 sail of the line, pick up the French ship in Cadiz, join Villeneuve who was in the Aix roads, and then effect a junction with Ganteaume and the 21 sail of the line at Brest.
Villeneuve, who was to have co-operated with Missiessy; did indeed leave Toulon, at a moment when Nelson, whose policy it was to encourage him to come out by not staying too near the port, was absent, on the 17th of January 1805.
But Villeneuve's ill-appointed ships, manned by raw crews, suffered loss of spars in a gale, and he returned to Toulon on the 21st.
Next to Toulon, Bizerta is the most important naval port of France in the Mediterranean.
In August he occupied Toulon on the invitation of the French royalists, and in co-operation with the Spaniards.
While the occupation of Corsica was being effected, the French at Toulon had so far recovered that they were able to send a fleet to sea.
Of Toulon, and 282 m.
JEAN JOSEPH MARIE AMIOT (1718-1793), French Jesuit missionary, was born at Toulon in February 1718.
Drawn gradually by that family into espousing the French cause against Paoli and the Anglophiles, he was forced to leave Corsica and to proceed with Laetitia and her son to Toulon, in the early part of the autumn of 1793.
After the battle his remains were brought to Toulon and buried in Fort La Malgue, and the revolutionary government paid tribute to his memory by a ceremony of public mourning (Sept.
In violation of the promise that he would be allowed to go to Alexandria or St Jean d'Acre, on the faith of which he surrendered, Abd-el-Kader and his family were detained in France, first at Toulon, then at Pau, being in November 1848 transferred to the chÃ¢teau of Amboise.
On the 13th of April it despatched a squadron of twelve sail of the line and four frigates from Toulon to America under the command of the Count d'Estaing.
After Waterloo he took ship from Toulon, but the ship was driven back by a storm and he narrowly escaped massacre at Marseilles.
In June 1913, after inspecting the fleet at Toulon, he paid a State visit to England (24-27), during which he enlarged on the necessity of the perpetual association of the two nations "for the progress of civilization and the maintenance of the peace of the world."
Early in 1793 the "Juno" went to the Mediterranean under Lord Hood, and her captain distinguished himself by an audacious feat of coolness and seamanship in extricating his vessel from the harbour of Toulon, which he had entered in ignorance of Lord Hood's withdrawal.
'Guerin, Jean Baptiste Paulin (1783-18s5), French painter, was born at Toulon, on the 25th of March 1783, of poor parents.
His "Dead Christ" (Cathedral, Baltimore) obtained a medal in 1817, and this success was followed up by a long series of works, of which the following are the more noteworthy: "Christ on the knees of the Virgin" (1819); "Anchises and Venus" (1822) (formerly in Luxembourg); "Ulysses and Minerva" (1824) (Musee de Rennes); "the Holy Family" (1829) (Cathedral, Toulon); and "Saint Catherine" (1838)(St Roch).
On the 9th of December he had been made viceadmiral, and in 1871 he commanded the fleet at Toulon; in 1875 he was a member of the council of admiralty; and in October 1876 he was appointed to command the evolutionary squadron in the Mediterranean.
While the vessels were being prepared for the voyage to Toulon all the hostages in the castles were liberated save four; but on the 24th of June Nelson arrived with his fleet, and on hearing of the capitulation he refused to g p recognize it save in so far as it concerned the French.
It passed to, or at least broke out in, Arles and Aix in 1720, causing great mortality, but in Toulon not till 1721, when it destroyed ' Relation historique de la peste de Marseille (Cologne, 1721, Paris, 1722, &c.); Chicoyneau, Verny, &c., Observations et ref exions de la peste (Marseilles, 1721); Chicoyneau, Traite de la peste, Paris, 1744); Littre, article " Peste," in Dictionnaire de medicine, xxiv.
The epidemic spread generally over Provence, but not to other parts of France, notwithstanding that, as confessed by D'Antrechaus, consul of Toulon, a believer in the exclusive power of contagion, there were abundant opportunities.
2 D'Antrechaus, Relation de la peste de Toulon en 1721 (Paris,.
Lambert, Histoire de la peste de Toulon en 1721 (Toulon,.
For its use, Colbert reconstructed the works and arsenal of Toulon, founded the port and arsenal of Rochefort, and the naval schools of Rochefort, Dieppe and Saint-Malo, and fortified, with some assistance from Vauban (who, however, belonged to the party of his rival Louvois), among other ports those of Calais, Dunkirk, Brest and Havre.
On the approach of the Seven Years' War the island of Minorca was threatened by an attack from Toulon and was actually invaded in 1756.
When war broke out again in 1793 he was appointed to the "Robust" (74), in which he took part in the occupation of Toulon by lord Hood.
The attempt which he made against Toulon in the course of the same year failed completely, because the invasion of the kingdom of Naples retarded the march of the troops which were to have been employed in it, and this delay afforded Marshal de Tesse time to make good dispositions.
In July Toulon rebelled.
Toulon, also largely Royalist, invited the English and Spanish admirals, Hood and Langara, who occupied the port and garrisoned the town.
The surrender of Toulon in December 1793 closed the south of France to Re- foreign enemies.
He travelled in the south of France, spending nearly two years at Toulon, the climate of which suited him.
In the Angevin Vendee the incapable leaders let themselves be beaten at Aubiers, Beauprau and Thouars, at a time when Cathelineau was taking possession of Saumur and threatening Nantes, the capture of which would have permitted the insurgents in La Vende to join those of Brittany and receive provisions from England; Meanwhile, the remnants of the Girondin federalists were overcome by the disguised royalists, who had aroused the whole of the Rhne valley from Lyons to Marseilles, had called in the Sardinians, and handed over the fleet and the arsenal at Toulon to the English, whilst Paoli left Corsica at their disposal.
Instead of profiting by Dumouriezs treachery and the successes in La Vende, the Coalition, divided over the resuscitated Polish question, lost time on the frontiers of this new Poland of the west which was sacrificing itself for the sake of a Universal Republic. Thus in January 1794 the territory of France was cleared of the Prussians and Austrians by the victories at Hondschoote, Wattignies and Wissembourg; the army of La Vende was repulsed from Granville, overwhelmed by Hoches army at Le Mans and Savenay, and its leaders shot; royalist sedition was suppressed at Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles and Toulon; federalist insurrections were wiped out by the terrible massacres of Carrier at Nantes, the atrocities of Lebon at Arras, and the wholesale executions of Fouch and Collot dHerbois at Lyons; Louis XVI.
Power reverted to the Girondins and Dantonists, who reentered the Convention on the 18th of December; but with them re-entered likewise the royalists of Lyons, Resuscita Marseilles and Toulon, and further, after the peace of tion of the Basel, many young men set free from the army, hostile royalist to the Jacobins and defenders of the now moderate ~~Y
But where and how will my Toulon present itself?
And then that happy moment, that Toulon for which he had so long waited, presents itself to him at last.
He was firmly convinced that this was the day of his Toulon, or his bridge of Arcola.