98) gives the translation, u yas ap7)tos, and considers the name as a compound of Xerxes, showing thereby that he knew nothing of the Persian language; the later Persian form is Ardashir, which occurs in the form Artaxias (Artaxes) as the name of some kings of Armenia.
The president of the committee (i irpc7.)Tos) is also the president of the assembly, which holds its sittings in the village of Karyes, the seat of government since the 10th century.
Berard, Les Phe'niciens et l'Odyssee (1902-1903), who regards the Odyssey as "the integration in a Greek voo-Tos (home-coming) of a Semitic periplus," in the form of a poem written 900-850 B.C. by an Ionic poet at the court of one of the Neleid kings of Miletus.
In late hieroglyphic the name of Thoth often has the epithet " the twice very great," sometimes " the thrice very great "; in the popular language (demotic) the corresponding epithet is " the five times very great," found as early as the 3rd century B.C. Greek translations give o p..iyas Kai ' Alias and p. yco-Tos: T pio-jeyas occurs in a late magical text.
The Greek consciousness of the sin of murder, only dimly awakened in the Homeric period, and only sensitive at first when a kinsman or a suppliant was slain, gradually expands till the sanctity of all human life becomes recognized by the higher morality of the people: and the names of ZEUs M€tXL tos, the dread deity of the ghost-world whom the sinner must make " placable," of ZEUs `I ho-tos and IIpoorpora70s, to whom the conscience-striken outcast may turn for mercy and pardon, play a guiding-part in this momentous evolution.9 Even this summary reveals the deep indebtedness of early Greek civilization to this cult, which engendered ideas of importance for the higher religious thought of the race, and which might have developed into a monotheistic religion, had a prophet-philosopher arisen powerful enough to combat the polytheistic proclivities of Hellas.
The names in which Ptolemy differs from modern usage are: - Hercules (iv -yovaotv), Cygnus ("Opvts), Eridanus (IIora tos), Lupus (Onpiov), Pegasus (17r7ros), Equuleus ("Iirirov irporogi i), Canis minor (IIpoidwv), and Libra (XnXai, although "vyos is used for the same constellation in other parts of the Almagest).