Of Toronto, on Lake Couchiching and on the Grand Trunk railway.
From Sackett's Harbor American expeditions against York (now Toronto) and Fort George respectively set out in April and May 1813; though scantily garrisoned it was successfully defended by General Jacob Brown (who had just taken command) against an attack, on the 29th of May, of Sir George Prevost with a squadron under Sir James Lucas Yeo.
The principal Canadian ports are Kingston, at the head of the St Lawrence river; Toronto, where the harbour is formed by an island with improved entrance channels constructed both east and west of it; and Hamilton, at the head of the lake, situated on a landlocked lagoon, connected with the main lake by Burlington channel, an artificial cut.
Attempts have been made to transfer the responsibility for the act of violence to O'Callaghan and other prominent leaders in the revolt; but Papineau's own words, "The patriots of this city would have avenged the massacre but they were so poor and so badly organized that they were not fit to meet the regular troops," prove that he did not discountenance recourse to arms. Writing of the events of 1837 in the year 1848 he said: "The smallest success at Montreal or Toronto would have induced the American government, in spite of its president, to support the movement."
Chandonnet; the Canadian Journal (Toronto), commenced in 1852 under Henry Youle Hind and continued by Daniel Wilson; L'Abeille (Quebec, 1848-1881), and the Canadian Monthly (Toronto, 1872-1882).
Since then it has met in Philadelphia, Belfast, London, Toronto, Glasgow, Washington and Liverpool.
Educated at Toronto University, he became a lecturer in English at the Toronto Collegiate Institute and held that post until 1885, when he gave up teaching for journalism, being editor and proprietor of the Lindsay Warder from 1885 to 1897.
Who was killed at York (now Toronto) on the 27th of April 1813.
Contemporary magazines are the Canadian Magazine (1893), the Westminster, both produced at Toronto, La Nouvelle-France (Quebec), the Canada Monthly (London, Ontario), and the University Magazine, edited by Professor Macphail, of the McGill University.
The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; the Field Museum, Chicago; the California Academy and the California University, San Francisco; and the Canadian Institute, Toronto, publish monographs and lists.
The city is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the Wabash, the Erie, the Lehigh Valley, the West Shore and the Michigan Central railways, and by the International Electric railway and the Niagara, St Catharines & Toronto (electric) railway.
JOHN STRACHAN (1778-1867), first bishop of Toronto, son of John Strachan and Elizabeth Finlayson his wife, was born at Aberdeen, Scotland, on the 12th of April 1778.
On the death of Bishop Stewart of Quebec the Canadian see was divided, and Strachan was made bishop of Toronto in August 1839.
He was military agent in New Orleans in 1809-1810, was deputy quartermaster-general in April - July 1812, and was in active service in the War of 1812 as adjutant and inspector-general in the campaign against York (now Toronto), Canada, and in the attack on York on the 27th of April 1813 was in immediate command of the troops in action and was killed by a piece of rock which fell on him when the British garrison in its retreat set fire to the magazine.
Of Toronto, on the Grand Trunk railway.
New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba support provincial universities at Fredericton, Toronto and Winnipeg.
Trinity University, Toronto, Ont.
(1852); Victoria University, Toronto, Ont.
Most of the larger towns and cities contain public libraries, that of Toronto being especially well-equipped.
David Macpherson of Toronto was president of the other.
Al' Gill University at Montreal has been enlarged and splendidly endowed by the munificence of a few private individuals; Toronto University by the provincial legislature of Ontario; Queen's University at Kingston largely by the support of its own graduates and friends.
While the older universities have increased greatly in influence and efficiency, the following new foundations have been made since confederation: - University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1877; Presbyterian College, Winnipeg, 1870; Methodist College, Winnipeg, 1888; Wesleyan College, Montreal, 1873; Presbyterian College, Montreal, 1868; School of Practical Science, Toronto, 1877; Royal Military College, Kingston, 1875; M`Master University, Toronto, 1888.
The annual Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada, published by the University of Toronto, gives a critical survey of the works on Canadian topics appearing from year to year.
Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; a Political History (Toronto, 1903); L.
ROBERT BALDWIN (1804-1858), Canadian statesman, was born at York (now Toronto) on the 12th of May 1804.
Of Toronto, on Georgian Bay.
1863), he emigrated to New York in 1838; and in 1843 they removed to Toronto, and began the publication of The Banner, a politico-religious paper in support of the newly formed Free Church of Scotland.
In 1844 he began, independently of his father, the issue of the Toronto Globe.
C. Dent, Canadian Portrait Gallery (Toronto, 1800).
The first Methodist Oecumenical Conference was held in London in 1881, the second in Washington in 1891, the third in London in 1901, the fourth being fixed for Toronto in 1911.
He was professor of classics in Trinity College, Toronto, from 1859 to 1862, when he became rector of the high school at Quebec. In 1867 he returned to Oxford, and was made vice-principal of St Mary Hall, a post which he held until 1885.
The two young men stood for chairs of physics and natural history respectively, first at Toronto, next at Sydney, but they were in each case unsuccessful.
In April 1813 the Americans took York (now Toronto), and in May moved on Fort George; but a counter-attack by Yeo and Prevost on Sackett's Harbour, on the 2gth of May, having made the Americans anxious about the safety of their base, naval support failed the American generals, and they were paralysed.
London, for example, is built on the old shore of Lake Warren, the highest of the extinct lakes; and St Catharines, Hamilton and Toronto are on the old shore of Lake Iroquois, the lowest.
Power from the falls is put to use in New York state and Ontario, a large amount being sent to Toronto 80 m.
Toronto, the provincial capital, has grown from S9,000 in 1871 to about 300,000, partly through the absorption of neighbouring towns and villages.
In and around Toronto are numerous boarding schools and colleges, of which those for boys are on the model of the great public schools of England.
The provincial university is situated in Toronto, and since 1906 has been governed by an independent board, over which a power of veto is retained by the lieutenant-governor in council.
Of these Victoria (Methodist) and Trinity (Anglican) are in Toronto, and have become federated with the provincial university, in which they have merged their degree-conferring powers.
MacMaster (Baptist) is also in Toronto, and retains its independence.
Ross (q.v.), higher education was aided and a school of practical science established in Toronto and of mining in Kingston; agriculture was fostered, .and an excellent agricultural college founded at Guelph in 1874.
Since 1889 the university of Toronto has published numerous valuable studies on historical, economic and social questions, e.g.
Of Toronto, on Bay of Quinte and the Grand Trunk railway.
In 1793 the see of Quebec was founded; Jamaica and Barbados followed in 1824, and Toronto and Newfoundland in 1839.
And when, in 1867, a coadjutor was chosen for the bishop of Toronto, an application for a royal mandate produced the reply from the colonial secretary that "it was not the part of the crown to interfere in the creation of a new bishop or bishopric, and not consistent with the dignity of the crown that he should advise Her Majesty to issue a mandate which would not be worth the paper on which it was written, and which, having been sent out to Canada, might be disregarded in the most complete manner."
GEORGE TAYLOR DENISON (1839-), Canadian soldier and publicist, was born in Toronto on the 31st of August 1839.
Most of the changes which he advocated were wise and have since been adopted; but the violence of Mackenzie's attacks roused great anger among the social and political set at York (Toronto), which was headed by John Beverley Robinson.
In November 1824 Mackenzie removed to Toronto, but he had little capital; his paper appeared irregularly, and was on the point of suspending publication when his office was attacked.
Early in December 1837 Mackenzie gathered a mob of his followers, to the number of several hundred, at Gallows Hill, some miles to the north of Toronto, with the intention of seizing the lieutenant-governor and setting up a provisional government.
The Life and Times by his son-in-law, Charles Lindsey (Toronto, 2 vols., 1862), is moderate and fair, though tending to smooth over his anti-British gasconnade while in the United States.
C. Dent (2 vols., Toronto, 1885), a bitter attack is made on him, which drew a savage reply from another son-in-law, John King, K.C., called The Other Side of the Story.
In that year he removed to Toronto, where he edited the Canadian Monthly, and subsequently founded the Week and the Bystander.
He died at his residence, The Grange, Toronto, on the 7th of June 1910.
He was called to the bar in 1891, and became head of the law firm of Rowell, Reid, Wood & Wright, Toronto; ultimately being made bencher of the Law Society of Upper Canada in 191 1.
Longley (Toronto, 1904) is dispassionate, but otherwise mediocre.
(1841); the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.
A vehement statement of the Canadian side will be found in How Canada was held for the Empire, by James Hannay (London,Edinburgh,Toronto, 1905).