The bark is of some value as a tonic and febrifuge.
This method had helped the House of Valois to consolidate its power; but what was tonic for a dynasty was death to a state whose headship was elective.
A sudden intense sense stimulus usually suffices to end this tonic discharge.
The muscular wall of the blood-vessels also exhibits tonic contraction, which, however, seems to be mainly traceable to a continual excitation of the muscle cells by nervous influence conveyed to them along their nerves, and originating in the great vaso motor centre in the bulb.
San Franciscan climate is breezy, damp and at times chilling; often depressing to the weakly, but a splendid tonic to others.
The kat plant, a medicinal herb which has a tonic quality, is largely grown in the Harrar province.
Quinine is largely used as a bitter tonic in doses of about half a grain.
The bark has been employed for dyeing yellow and for tanning, and was formerly in popular repute as a febrifuge and tonic. The powder of the dried nuts was at one time prescribed as a sternutatory (to encourage sneezing) in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia.
Here the quinine acts as a bitter tonic. The tinctura quininae ammoniata or "ammoniated quinine" is made by mixing t 75 grains of quinine sulphate, 2 fluid oz.
The south spring is aperient, but contains some iron; while the north or chalybeate spring is more tonic in its properties.
Further, the only post-tonic Latin vowel preserved ~y the Catalan is, as in Gallo-Roman, a: mare gives mar, gratu (s) gives grat, but anima gives arma; and, when the word terminates in a group of consonants requiring a supporting vowel, that vowel is represented by an e:
Bet ore the tonic the same change between a and e constantly takes place; one finds in manuscripts enar, emor for anar, amor (the same extends even to the case of the tonic syllable, ten and sent from t a n t u in and 1 a n c t u m being far from rare), and, on the other hand, antre, arrar, for entre, errar.
Navarrese-Aragone~e has the diphthongs Ce, ue from tonic and, and adheres more strictly to them than normal Castilian doescuende (c b m i t e rn) huey (h d 1 e), pueyo (pb di U rn), yes (e s t), yeran (h r ii n t), while Castilian says conde, hoy, poyo, es, ryan.
- In large doses the action of picrotoxin is exerted chiefly on the medullary nerve centres, whereby irregular tonic-clonic convulsions are produced; in minute doses it stops the secretion of sweat.
Temperance in the use of alcohol has followed the demonstration not only of its unimportance as a food or tonic, but also of its harmfulness, save in very small quantities.
By tonic contraction is meant a prolonged and equable state of tension which yields under analysis no element of intermittent character.
The powdered bark is sometimes given to horses as a vermifuge; it possesses likewise tonic and febrifugal properties, containing a considerable amount of salicin.
From time immemorial thera- savages have been accustomed to eat the hearts of lions and other wild animals, under the belief that they will thereby obtain courage and strength like that of the animal from which the heart had been taken, but in 1889 BrownSequard proposed to use testicular juice as a general tonic and stimulant.
In the same way the supporting vowel, which is regularly an e in CataIan, is often written a, especially after r (abra, ar bore m; astra, a s t r u m; para, p a t r e in); one may say that in the actual state of the language post-tonic e and a become indistinguishable in a surd sound intermediate between the French a and mute e.
The importance of Crispi in Italian public life depended less upon the many reforms accomplished under his administrations than upon his intense patriotism, remarkable fibre, and capacity for administering to his fellow-countrymen the political tonic of which they stood in constant need.
Gastrocnemius, tonic contraction obtains; but this, like the last mentioned, is not autochthonous in the muscles themselves; it is indirect and neural, and appears to be maintained reflexly.
Of great practical importance is the fact that the cornutine causes rhythmic contractions such as naturally occur, whilst the sphacelinic acid produces a tonic contraction of the uterus, which is unnatural and highly inimical to the life of the foetus.
I tonic long and i short, when in hiatus with another vowel, produce i (amich, a in i c u 1; via, vi a).
A tonic VowelsAs for the Latin post-tonic vowels already spoken of, it remains to be noted that a is often represented in writng by e, especially before s; in.
The well of effervescent chalybeate water is largely resorted to for anaemia and as a tonic. A peat bath, similar to those at Franzensbad in Bohemia, has also been established.
Their language, which is neither monosyllabic nor tonic, has nothing in common with that of the MonAnnam group. It has, moreover, been pointed out that had the Malays been driven southwards by the stronger races of the mainland of Asia, it might be expected that the people inhabiting the country nearest to the border between Siam and Malaya would belong to the Malayan and not to the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer stock.
Some bitters, although possessing tonic properties, may be regarded as beverages pure and simple, notwithstanding the fact that they are seldom consumed in an undiluted state; others again, are obviously medicinal preparations and should be treated as such.
Added to the greater force of cardiac contraction is a permanent tonic contraction of the organ, so that its internal capacity is reduced.
A form of contraction intermediate in character between the tonic and the rhythmic is met in the auricle of the heart of the toad.
The ferri et quininae citras, one of the "scale preparations" of iron, is given as a haematinic and tonic in doses of about to grains.
In this sense alone quinine is a tonic. The hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice is stated to convert any salt of quinine into a chloride, and it seems probable that the absorption of quinine takes place mainly from the stomach, for when the drug reaches the alkaline secretions of the duodenum it is precipitated, and probably none of it is thereafter absorbed.
(1) To take first its treatment of the final vowelsCatalan, like French and Provenal, having only oxytones and paroxytones, does not admit more than one syllable after the tonic accent: thus anima gives arma, cdmera gives cambra.
Catalan being a variety of the langue doc, it will be convenient to note the peculiarities of its phonetics and inflexion as compared with ordinary Provenal, Tonic VowelsWith regard to a, which is pronounced alike in open and close syllables (amar, a m a r e; abre, a r b o r), there is nothing to remark.
The Latin never yields ie in Catalan as it does in French and occasionally in Provenal; s e d e t becomes seu (where u represents the final d), p e d e m makes peu, and e go eu; in some words where the tonic is followed by a syllable in which an i occurs, it may become I (ir, he r i; mig, me di us; m-,is, m eli us); and the same holds good for in a similar situation (ciri, c r i u s, c e r e u s; fire, f e r i a), and for e in a close syllable before a nasal (eximpli, e x e to p 1 u m; mintr for mentir, gint for gent).
O tonic long and o short are represented by a dote and o.
After the tonic ue often becomes a in the Catalan of the mainland (ayga, a q u a, llenga, I in g u a), while in Majorca it becomes o (ay~o, lien go).
As regards the tonic, accent and the treatment of the vowels which come after it, Castilian may be said to be essentially a paroxytonic language, though it does not altogether refuse proparoxytonic accentuation and it would be a mistake to regard vocables like 1dm para, lagrima, rdpido, &c., as learned words.
Le occurs, as in Old Castilian, in words formed with the suffix ellum (castiellu, portiellu), while modern Castilian has reduced Ce to C. E, i, u, post-tonic for a, e, 0: penes (penas), gracies (gracias), esii (este), frenti, (frente), liechi (leche), nuechi (noche), unu (uno), primeru (primero).
In China it was an old internal remedy for leprosy and struma, and is accredited with stimulant, tonic, sedative, astringent and vulnerary properties.
Knit goods are manufactured, but the importance of the place is due to its sulphur springs, the waters of which are used for the treatment of skin diseases, gout, rheumatism, etc., and to the tonic air and fine scenery.
Coincidently with the persistence of the tonic contraction, the higher and volitional centres seem to lie under a spell of inhibition; their action, which would complete or cut short the posture-spasm, rests in abeyance.
Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body.
Its most effective use, however, is as a nerve tonic in paralysis agitans, locomotor ataxia, impotence and nervous exhaustion.