His action in abolishing all tolls established on the Rhine since 1250, led to the formation of a league against him by the Rhenish archbishops and the count palatine of the Rhine; but aided by the towns, he soon crushed the rising.
Provincial revenues are drawn from provincial property, school taxes, tolls and surtaxes on land and buildings.
In most parts of England the plate-rail was preferred, and it was used on the Surrey iron railway, from Wandsworth to Croydon, which, sanctioned by parliament in 1801, was finished in 1803, and was the first railway available to the public on payment of tolls, previous lines having all been private and reserved exclusively for the use of their owners.
The neighbouring Thames Tunnel was opened in 1843, but, as the tolls were insufficient to maintain it, was sold to the East London Railway Company in 1865.
No charter has been found, but a judgment given under a writ of quo warranto in 1578 confirms to the burgesses freedom from toll, passage and pontage, the tolls and stallage of the quay and the right to hold two fairs - privileges which they claimed under charters of Baldwin de Redvers and Isabel de Fortibus, countess of Albemarle, in the 13th century, and Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, in 1405.
In earlier times a bridge here crossed the Fleet, leading from Newgate, while a quarter of a mile west of the viaduct is the site of Holborn Bars, at the entrance to the City, where tolls were levied.
The Order only imposed customs duties: it levied no tolls within the land; and though its consent was necessary to any change in municipal ordinances, it allowed the towns a large amount of self-government.
He was for exempting American shipping from Panama Canal tolls and also supported woman suffrage.
There were Genoese ships in St Simeon's harbour in the spring of 1098 and at Jaffa in 1099; in 1099 Dagobert, the archbishop of Pisa, led a fleet from his city to the Holy Land; and in i ioo there came to Jaffa a Venetian fleet of 200 sail, whose leaders promised Venetian assistance in return for freedom from tolls and a third of each town they helped to conquer.
The court was part of the general immunity which made these quarters imperia in imperio: their exemptions from tolls and from financial contributions is parallel to their judicial privileges.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
With tolls, and the tribute of the Delian League, a fund of 9700 talents (2,30o,000) was amassed in the treasury.
It was Orduin who first abolished the onerous system of tolls on exports and imports, and established a combination of native merchants for promoting direct commercial relations between Sweden and Russia.
In 1383 Bishop Fordham gave the burgesses licence to receive tolls within the borough for the maintenance of the walls, while Bishop Neville granted a commission for the construction of a pier or mole.
In 1189 a charter granting Hamburg considerable franchises, including exemption from tolls, a separate court and jurisdiction, and the rights of fishery on the Elbe from the city to the sea.
The alake exercises little authority apart from his council, the form of government being largely democratic. Revenue is chiefly derived from tolls or import duties.
The market is of ancient origin, and was formerly held on Monday; in the survey the tolls are assessed at 45 shillings.
The finances were speedily put on an excellent footing, means were provided for carrying on the war to a successful issue (one of the chief expedients being the raising of the Sound tolls) and on the conclusion of peace Oxe, as lord treasurer, not only reduced the national debt considerably, but redeemed a large portion of the alienated crown-lands.
In 1190 tenants of Wisbech Barton acquired an exemption from tolls throughout England, confirmed by John, Henry IV.
In the days of the old German empire no fewer than thirty-five different tolls were levied between Melnik and Hamburg, to say nothing of the special dues and privileged exactions of various riparian owners and political authorities.
By this a definite number of tolls, at fixed rates, was substituted for the often arbitrary tolls which had been exacted previously.
Still further relief was afforded in 1844 and in 1850, on the latter occasion by the abolition of all tolls between Melnik and the Saxon frontier.
But the number of tolls was only reduced to one, levied at Wittenberge, in 1863, about one year after Hanover was induced to give up the Stade or Brunsbiittel toll in return for a compensation of 2,857,340 thalers.
Finally, in 1870, 1,000,000 thalers were paid to Mecklenburg and 85,000 thalers to Anhal, which thereupon abandoned all claims to levy tolls upon the Elbe shipping, and thus navigation on the river became at last entirely free.
Some of the bridges were built by companies, and tolls were levied at their crossing until modern times; thus Southwark Bridge was made toll-free in 1866, and Waterloo Bridge only in 1878, on being acquired by the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works respectively.
The king and Later his brother had long entertained designs against the city, history of and for the purpose of crushing them two pretexts were the cor- set up-(I) that a new rate of market tolls had been levied poration.
The trustees were required and empowered to maintain, repair and improve the roads committed to their charge, and the expenses of the trust were met by tolls levied on persons using the road.
One of the consequences of the act was the abolition of tolls, statutelabour, causeway mail and other exactions for the maintenance of bridges and highways, and all turnpike roads became highways, and all highways became open to the public free of tolls and other exactions.
At the same time commerce was encouraged by the abolition of unauthorized tolls and by an improvement of the coinage; while the sale of arms to hostile peoples, and the trade in Christian slaves were forbidden.
In 1189 freed the burgesses from tolls and all secular customs. In 1199 John repeated the grant and gave them the farm of the customs of their own port and those of Portsmouth at a yearly rent of X200.
" It is a shame which cries to heaven, this oppression by tithes, dues, penalties, excommunication, and tolls of the peasant, on whose labour all men depend for their existence."
Granted a charter, confirmed by John in 1203, which gave Ilchester the same liberties as Winchester, with freedom from tolls and from being impleaded without the walls, the fee farm being fixed at £26, Ios.
There were special privileges surrounding tenancies of these lands, such as freedom from tolls and duties, exemption from danegeld and amercement, from sitting on juries, &c. Hence, the phrase "ancient demesne" came to be applied to the tenure by which the lands were held.
The manor, with a market and tolls, was among the possessions confirmed in 972 by King Edgar to the abbot of Peterborough, to whom it still belonged in 1086.
The tolls imposed by the Dutch on navigation on the Scheldt strangled Belgian trade, for Antwerp was the only port of the country.
This flourishing industry, which fully occupied 40,000 boats and 300,000 fishers assembled from all parts of Europe to catch and salt the favourite Lenten fare of the whole continent, was the property of the Danish crown, and the innumerable tolls and taxes imposed by the king on the frequenters of the market was one of his most certain and lucrative sources of revenue.
The Polish towns, notably Cracow, had obtained their privileges, including freedom from tolls and municipal government, from the Crown in return for important services, such as warding off the Tatars, while the cities of German origin were protected by the Magdeburg law.
In all, 612 Nethinim came back from the Exile and were lodged near the "House of the Nethinim" at Ophel, towards the east wall of Jerusalem so as to be near the Temple, where they served under the Levites and were free of all tolls, from which they must have been supported.
The docks attached to the canals, and certain other smaller docks, are owned by companies, and tolls are levied on vessels entering these, but not those entering the docks under the Board.
In 1903 all tolls were taken off the Canadian canals, greatly to the benefit of trade.
It became a mesne borough by the charter granted by John in 1201, which provided that the town should be a free borough, the burgesses to be free and quit of all tolls, and made William de Briwere overlord.
In the 8th century we hear frequently of tolls on merchant ships at various ports, especially London.
During that period he obtained once more the control of the foreign policy of Denmark as well as of the Sound tolls, and towards the end of it he hoped to increase his power still further with the assistance of his sons-in-law, Korfits Ulfeld and Hannibal Sehested, who now came prominently forward.
The United Provinces were recognized as free and independent, and Spain dropped all her claims; the uti possidetis basis was adopted in respect to all conquests; the Scheldt was declared entirely closed - a clause which meant the ruin of Antwerp for the profit of Amsterdam; the right to trade in the East and West Indies was granted, and all the conquests made by the Dutch from the Portuguese were ceded to them; the two contracting parties agreed to respect and keep clear of each other's trading grounds; each was to pay in the ports of the other only such tolls as natives paid.
The revenue and expenditure were in the years stated as follows: - The revenue is made up from taxes, including customs, tolls, including returns from railway traffic, &c., and the balance comes The difference is made up of "special expenditure."
By it private war was declared unlawful, except in cases where justice could not be obtained; a chief justiciar was appointed for the Empire; all tolls and mints erected since the death of Henry VI.
Having restored the Rhine tolls to the Rhenish archbishops and made his peace with the Habsburgs, Henry went to Italy in the autumn of 1310, not, however, with a large army, and remained in the peninsula until his death in August 1313.
Of the technically imperial fiefs, were divided and devised princes, by them at will like other forms of private property; they had nearly all the rights of a sovereign with regard to levying tolls, coining money, administering justice and granting privileges to towns; they were assisted in the work of government by a privy council, while their courts with their numerous officials began to resemble that of the king or emperor.
Lock and bridge tolls were abolished in 1899 and 1901 respectively.
The Hanseatic League, whose political ascendancy had been shaken by the Union, enraged by Eric's efforts to bring in the Dutch as commercial rivals, as well as by the establishment of the Sound tolls, materially assisted the Holsteiners in their twenty-five years' war with Denmark (1410-35), and Eric VII.
The freedom from the Sound tolls was by the same treaty also extended to Sweden's Baltic provinces.
The Sound tolls, for instance, in consequence of the treaties of Bromsebro and Kristianopel (by the latter treaty very considerable concessions were made to the Dutch) had sunk from 400,000 to 140,000 rix-dollars.
Originally they were maintained by tolls, but this method, after several counties had obtained separate acts for its abolition, was superseded in 1883 by the act of 1878.
Von Liebenau has, however, shown (in an article reprinted from the Katholische Schweizerblatter in the Bollettino Storico della Svizzera Italiana for 1899) that in 1283 the Emperor Rudolf of Habsburg gave the right of receiving the tolls for escort over the St Gotthard Pass to his sons, the dukes of Austria.
Up to 1891 the lord of the manor held a court-leet and court-baron annually in November, but in that year Lord Lilford sold to the local board the market tolls, stallages and pickages, and since this sale the courts have lapsed.
He granted a charter in 1194 declaring that he retained the borough in his hand, and granting a yearly fair and weekly market, freedom from certain tolls, from shire and hundred court and sheriffs' aids.
He was bound by the pacta conventa which he signed on his accession to maintain a fleet on the Baltic. He proposed to do so by levying tolls on all imports and exports passing through the Prussian ports which had been regained by the truce of Stumdorf.
But when Wladislaus, their lawful possessor, imposed similar tolls in the interests of the republic, Danzig protested and appealed to the Scandinavian powers.
Amongst taxes strictly so called were the market dues or tolls, which in some cases approximated to excise duties, though in their actual mode of levy they were closely similar to the octrois of modern times.