The identification with the Asmodeus of Tobit iii.
The extant writings of the Jewish sages are contained in the books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms, Ben-Sira, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to which may be added the first chapter of Pirke Aboth (a Talmudic tract giving, probably, pre-Christian material).
Angels occur only in Job and Tobit, and there in noteworthy characters: in Job they are beings whom God charges with folly (iv.
The Apocrypha Proper, or the apocrypha of the Old Testament as used by English-speaking Protestants, consists of the following books: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Additions to Daniel (Song of the Three Holy Children, History of Susannah, and Bel and the Dragon), Prayer of Manasses, i Maccabees, 2 Maccabees.
But these translations were regarded as imperfect, and it remained for Tobit ben Korra (836-901) to produce a satisfactory edition.
Tobit ben Korra (836-901), born at Harran in Mesopotamia, an accomplished linguist, mathematician and astronomer, rendered conspicuous service by his translations of various Greek authors.
It appears to be traceable in its Greek dress in writings of the philosopher Democritus and the dramatist Menander; it was certainly known to the author of Tobit and perhaps to the author of Daniel; some would trace its influence in the New Testament, in the parable of the wicked servant and elsewhere; it was known to Mahomet and is referred to in the Koran; it has been included among the tales in the Arabian Nights; and it survives in a good many versions ancient and modern.
The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.
Again in Tobit a leading part is played by Raphael, " one of the seven holy angels."
27 In Tobit, too, we find the idea of the demon or evil angel.
But in Tobit we find Asmodaeus the evil demon, TO 7rovrlpov Sac,uoviov, who strangles Sarah's husbands, and also a general reference to " a devil or evil spirit," 77/€144,a.
25 Tobit xii.
18.29 Tobit iii.
These problems were also attacked by the Arabian mathematicians; Tobit ben Korra (836-901) is credited with a solution, while Abul Gud solved it by means of a parabola and an equilateral hyperbola.
Susanna, where the point lies in the name Daniel " God is judge "), Esther, Judith, Tobit (and the Ahiqar cycle of stories), the story of Zerubbabel (i Esd.
By Tobit ben Korra (836-901).
In the Septuagint and Vulgate it immediately precedes Esther, and along with Tobit comes after Nehemiah; in the English Apocrypha it is placed between Tobit and the apocryphal additions to Esther.
ACHIACHARUS, a name occurring in the book of Tobit (i.
21 f.) as that of a nephew of Tobit and an official at the court of Esarhaddon at Nineveh.
1898), and it was pointed out by George Hoffmann in 1880 that this Ahikar and the Achiacharus of Tobit are identical.
What is certain is that the definite assumption of monogamy is found only in such late books as Ben-Sira (Ecclesiasticus), Tobit and Judith.
12 and Tobit iv.
Avvob pos, once in Tobit Aabnpos), a royal Persian or Median name occurring in three of the books of the Old Testament and in one of the books of the Apocrypha.
THE BOOK OF TOBIT, one of the books of the Old Testament Apocrypha.
The Book of Tobit has reached us in Greek, Latin, Syriac, Aramaic and Hebrew versions; of these the Hebrew are the latest, and need not be considered.
The Itala was published by Pierre Sabatier at Paris in 1751, and is reproduced in the Book of Tobit by Neubauer (Clarendon Press, 1878).
But Tobit is already quoted as "scripture" by Clement of Alexandria (Strom.
The words of Tobit (xii.
Earlier still the Book of Tobit is quoted, though not by name, in the Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians (x.
(Preface to Tobit.) Internal evidence shows that the writer of the 14th chapter lived after the building of the Second Temple, which was "not as the first."
5 and 6 of that chapter Tobit is made to predict a glorious building of Jerusalem and the Temple, which was to be followed by the conversion of all the Gentiles.
For Tobit differs from all other books of the Bible in containing the only polite reference to the dog.
A new interest has been added recently to the study of Tobit by the publication of the Wisdom of Ahikar (Ahikar).
In the Book of Tobit Ahikar is represented as the prime minister of Sennacherib and his son Esar-Haddon, and is claimed by Tobit as his nephew.
Neubauer, The Book of Tobit (Oxford, 1878); Fuller in Speaker's Commentary (1888); E.
Bib.; Toy in Jewish Encyclopedia; Johannes Mailer, Beitrcige zur Erkldrung and Kritik des Buches Tobit; and in the same volume Alter and Herkunft des Achicar-Romans and sein Verhdltniss zu Aesop, by Rudolf Smend.
The History of Arkir and Anadam, printed by Anton Pann from older MSS., is the now famous Old Testament apocryphon of Akyrios the Wise, mentioned in Tobit and found in many languages.
In the apocryphal book of Tobit (iii.
Mordecai is represented as a fellow-captive of Jeconiah (597 B.C.), and grandvizier in Xerxes's twelfth year (474 B.C.) I This is parallel to the strange statement in Tobit xiv.
7) occurs among names which are certainly not Persian (Bigvai is no exception), and Haman (Tobit xiv.
And cast horoscopes; here Tobit ben Korra (836 901) developed his long unquestioned, yet misleading theory of the " trepidation " of the equinoxes; Abd-ar-rahman al-Safi 9 0 3-9 86) revised at first hand the catalogue of Ptolemy; 3 and Abulwefa (939-998), like al-Safi, a native of Persia, made continuous planetary observations, but did not (as alleged by L.
The Conics of Apollonius was translated into Arabic by Tobit ben Korra in the 9th century, and this edition was followed by Halley in 1710.
It is doubtful, however, whether the Asmodeus of the book of Tobit is the same as the Aeshma Daewa of the Bundahesh.
24), and is probably also represented by Asmodeus, to whom lustful qualities are assigned (Tobit vi.
Moreover, although the Syriac of the Story of Ahigar is of a late type, the sources of the story, traces of which are to be found in the Hebrew Tobit, go back to the pre-Hellenistic period.
He quotes all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth and the Song of Solomon, and amongst the sacred writings of the Old Testament he evidently included the book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus.