Like the Nearctic the Palaearctic subregion seems to possess but one single peculiar family of land birds, the Panuridae, represented by the beautiful species known to Englishmen as the bearded titmouse, Panurus biarmicus.
The manakins are peculiar to the Neotropical Region and have many of the habits of the titmouse family (Paridae), living in deep forests, associating in small bands, and keeping continually in motion, but feeding almost wholly on the large soft berries of the different kinds of Melastoma.
Oak-galls, for example, are broken open by the titmouse in order to obtain the grub within, and the " button-galls " of Neuroterus numismatis, Oliv., are eaten by pheasants.
The woodcock, partridge, hawk, water-ousel, magpie, jay, raven, various kinds of owls, wood-pigeon, golden-crested wren, tufted lark and titmouse are among the birds which breed here.
The 1 Though Edwards called the species he figured (ut supra) a titmouse, he properly remarked that there was no genus of European birds to which he could liken it.