Petroleum has been found at several points on the coast in the department of Piura, and near Lake Titicaca in the department of Puno.
In 1889 the total foreign debt, including arrears of interest, was £54,000,000, and in the following year a contract was signed with the Peruvian Corporation, a company in which the bondholders became shareholders, for the transfer to it for 66 years of the state railways,, the free use of certain ports, the right of navigation on Lake Titicaca, the exploitation of the remaining guano deposits up to 3,000,000 tons, and thirty-three annual subsidies of £80,000 each, in consideration of the cancellation of the debt.
The conquering tribe or tribes had made their way to the sierra from the plains, and found themselves a new land sheltered from attack amidst the lofty mountains that hem in the valley of Cuzco and the vast lake basin of Titicaca, situated 12,000 ft.
It is traversed by an important railway line from Mollendo (Islay) to Puno, on Lake Titicaca, 325 m.
The fact remains, however, that the curious metal-craft of the narrow strip along the Pacific from Mexico to Titicaca is the greatest of archaeological enigmas.
And with Puno, on Lake Titicaca, by an extension of the same line 218 m.
AYMARA (anc. Colla), a tribe of South American Indians, formerly inhabiting the country around Lake Titicaca and the neighbouring valleys of the Andes.
In early days the home of the Aymaras by Lake Titicaca was a "holy land" for the Incas themselves, whose national legends attributed the origin of all Quichua (Inca) civilization to that region.
The line adopted starts from Lake Suches, the source of a small river of that name flowing into the north of Lake Titicaca, crosses the Cordillera by the Palomani to the Tambopata river, follows that stream to the mouth of the Lanza, thence crosses to the source of the Heath river, which forms the dividing line down to its junction with the Madre de Dios, descends that river to the mouth of the Torosmonas, thence in a straight line north-westerly to the intersection of the Tahu.amanu river by the 69th meridian, and thence north on that meridian to the Brazilian frontier.
The great inland basin of Lake Titicaca is thus formed.
It is nowhere disturbed by volcanic eruptions, except at the very edge of the formation near Lake Titicaca, and in this respect it differs essentially from the Maritime Cordillera.
The Suches, which has its source in Lake Suches, falls into Lake Titicaca on the north-west side, as well as the Yllpa and Ylave.
The principal islands are Titicaca and Coati (at the south end near the peninsula of Copacabana), Campanaria (9 m.
There are two other lakes in the Collao, as the elevated region round Titicaca is called.
Lake Arapa, a few miles from the northern shore of Titicaca, is 30 m.
Families, the former inhabiting the regions northward of Cuzo, and the latter occupying the Titicaca basin and the sierras of Bolivia.
Of private lines, the estimated cost to be about £37,500,000-a sum far beyond the resources of the republic. The two transandean lines were the famous Oroya railway, running from Callao to Oroya (1893), which crosses the Western Cordillera at an elevation of 15,645 ft., and later on to Cerro de Pasco (1904), the Goillarisquisga coal mines (1904) and Hauri (1906); and the southern line from Mollendo to Lake Titicaca, which reached Arequipa in 1869, Puno in 1871 and Checcacupe (Cuzco branch) in 1906.
Of a widely different character is the navigation of Lake Titicaca, where steamers ply regularly between Puno and Guaqui, the latter on the south-east shore in railway connexion with La Paz, the capital of Bolivia.
The second-class ports are Tumbez, Talara, Pimentel, Chimbote, Samanco, Casma, Huacho, Cerro-Azul, Tambo de Mora Lomas and Chala, on the coast, Puno on Lake Titicaca, and Leticia on the Amazon near the western mouth of the Javary, Callao (qv.) is the chief port of the republic and monopolizes the greater part of its foreign trade.
In 1875 he surveyed Lake Titicaca, Peru, examined the copper mines of Peru and Chile, and made a collection of Peruvian antiquities for that museum, of which he was curator from 1874 to 1885.
Eastern Moquegua is volcanic, and is broken by the high range that forms the western rim of the Titicaca basin.
It is thus the largest sheet of fresh water between Lake Michigan and Lake Titicaca on the borders of Bolivia and Peru.
North-east of Lake Titicaca there is a confused mass or knot (the Nudo de Apolobamba) of lofty intersecting ridges which include some of the highest peaks in South America.
Near Lake Titicaca, but descends about 1000 ft.
Lake Titicaca receives the waters of several short streams from the neighbouring heights and discharges through the Desaguadero, a sluggish river flowing south for 184 m.
The two principal lakes of the plateau region are Titicaca and Pampa Aullaguas or Poopo.
South-east of Titicaca, and is fed principally by its outflow.
Below the level of Titicaca, which gives an average fall for the Desaguadero of very nearly 24 ft.
The recent deposits, which cover so large a part of the depression between the Eastern and the Western Cordillera, appear to be partly of torrential origin, like the talus-fans at the foot of mountain ranges in other dry regions; but Lakes Titicaca and Pampa Aullaguas (Poopo) were undoubtedly at one time rather more extensive than they are to-day.
The former, which are chiefly Aymaras south of the latitude of Lake Titicaca, attained a considerable degree of civilization before the discovery of America and have been in closer contact with Europeans than the other tribes of Bolivia.
Long) from Guaqui, on Lake Titicaca, to Alto de La Paz, which is connected with the city of La Paz, 1493 ft.
The loss of her maritime department has left Bolivia with no other ports than those of Lake Titicaca (especially Guaqui, or Huaqui, which trades with the Peruvian port of Puno), and those of the Madeira and Paraguay rivers and their affluents.
Neveau-Lemaire, " Le Titicaca et le Poopo," &c., in La Geographie, ix.
The first movement of the war was the successful invasion of Upper Peru by the army of Buenos Aires, under General Balcarce, which, after twice defeating the Spanish troops, was able to celebrate the first anniversary of independence near Lake Titicaca, in May 1811.
The extreme source of the Beni is the little river La Paz, which rises in the inter-Andean region, a few miles southeast of Lake Titicaca, and flows as a rivulet through the Bolivian city of La Paz.
North of Lake Titicaca, is the most interesting branch of the Amazon next to the Madeira.
In Bolivia this eastern ridge, separated from the western Cordillera by the longitudinal valley in which Lake Titicaca lies, is formed chiefly of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks.
Del Fuego; Paniquitan, Colombia; Panoan, Ucayali R., Peru; Payaguan, Chaco; Puquinan, Titicaca L.; Samucan, Bolivia; Tacanan, N.