In Crete, in the later period, when the rulers could trust to the " wooden walls " of the Minoan navy, there is no parallel for the massive fortifications that we see at Tiryns or Mycenae.
- Mycenae and Tiryns are the two principal sites on which evidence of a prehistoric civilization was remarked long ago by the classical Greeks.
But by laying bare in 1884 the upper stratum of remains on the rock of Tiryns (q.v.), Schliemann made a contribution to our knowledge of prehistoric domestic life which was amplified two years later by Chr.
Schliemann's work at Tiryns was not resumed till 1905, when it was proved, as had long been suspected, that an earlier palace underlies the one he had exposed.
- For details of monumental evidence the articles On Crete, Mycenae, Tiryns, Troad, Cyprus, &c., must be consulted.
Next in importance come Hissarlik, Mycenae, Phaestus, Hagia, Triada, Tiryns, Phylakope, Palaikastro and Gournia.
- The great Cretan palaces and the fortified citadels of Mycenae, Tiryns and Hissarlik, each FIG.
Schliemann, Tiryns, Plate XIII.
Now the second type, the "megaron" arrangement, characterizes peculiarly the palaces discovered in the north of the Aegean area, at Mycenae, Tiryns and Hissarlik, where up to the present no signs of the first type, so characteristic of Crete, have been observed.
Tiryns and Hissarlik, other communities of the early race began to arrive at civilization, but were naturally influenced by the more advanced culture of Crete, in proportion to their nearness of vicinity.
The situation of the Acropolis, dominating the surrounding plain and possessing easy communication with the sea, favoured the formation of a relatively powerful state - inferior, however, to Tiryns and Mycenae; the myths of Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus bear witness to the might of the princes who ruled in the Athenian citadel, and here we may naturally expect to find traces of massive fortifications resembling in some degree those of the great Argolid cities.
It also possesses the famous collection of prehistoric antiquities found by Schliemann at Tiryns and Mycenae, other " Mycenaean " objects discovered at Nauplia and in Attica, as well as the still earlier remains excavated by Tsountas in the Cyclades and by the British School at Phylakopi in Melos; terra-cottas from Tanagra and Asia immense building, however, which was restored in 1896 and the following years, was that constructed in Pentelic marble about A.D.
Having slain by accident the Corinthian hero Bellerus (or, according to others, his own brother) he fled to Tiryns, where his kinsman Proetus, king of Argos, received him hospitably and purged him of his guilt.
Bellerophon is said to have returned to Tiryns and avenged himself on Anteia: he persuaded her to fly with him on his winged horse, and then flung her into the sea near the island of Melos (Schol.
AMPHITRYON, in Greek mythology, son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns in Argolis.
It remained for the more robust faith of a Schliemann to show that such scepticism was all too faint-hearted, by proving that at such sites as Tiryns, Mycenae and Hissarlik evidences of a very early period of Greek civilization awaited the spade of the excavator.
Examples have been found at Tiryns and Mycenae, and references are made to it in the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The Perseid Alcmena, wife of Amphitryon of Tiryns, was Hercules' mother, Zeus his father.
Iphitus persuaded Hercules to search for Eurytus' lost oxen, but was killed by him at Tiryns in a frenzy.
There can therefore be little doubt that the two towns were the strongholds of a single race, Tiryns commanding the sea-coast and Mycenae the inner country.
On the summit, approached by a well-preserved flight of steps, are the remains of a palace of the Mycenaean age, similar to that found at Tiryns, though not so complicated or extensive.
A further interest in Greek archaeology has been awakened in all civilized lands by the excavations of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, Epidaurus, Sparta, Olympia, Dodona, Delphi, Delos and of important sites in Crete.
TIRYNS, the T ipvvs -recxu6wo-a of Homer (Il.
After the Spartan defeat of Argos in 494 B.C. Tiryns regained temporary independence, and the Tirynthians fought on the OI Greek side at Plataea, while the Argives held aloof.
Soon after, in 468 B.C., Tiryns was finally destroyed through the jealousy of the Argives, and the site has been deserted ever since, but for a brief occupation in Byzantine times.
Excavations made in1884-1885by Schliemann and DOrpfeld over part of the rock on which Tiryns stood have exposed a most interesting building, which offers the most complete example of a palace of the Mycenaean age in Greece.
The rock on which Tiryns is built is of an irregular oval shape, about 330 yds.
This division contains the palace of the ruler of Tiryns, a building which shows careful and skilful construction, elaborate decoration, and a well-arranged plan, suitable to the wants1 of a wealthy autocratic chief, who lived in a manner which partly recalls the luxury of an Oriental king, and also resembled the feudal state of a medieval baron, surrounded by a crowd of vassals.
The methods of construction employed in the Tiryns palace are of the highest interest.
The relation of the palace at Tiryns to those described in the Homeric poems has given rise to much discussion.
It is now generally recognized that, while the general character of the palace at Tiryns is invaluable as illustrating the type of house in the mind of the Homeric poet, it is a mistake to appeal to it for the explanation of details of arrangement such as probably varied considerably according to the conditions and requirements in different cases.
Schliemann, Tiryns (London, 1886); Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations, trans.
A third class of Cyclopes are the builders of the so-called "Cyclopean" walls of Mycenae and Tiryns, giants with arms in their belly, who were said to have been brought by Proetus from Lycia to Argos, his original home (Pausanias ii.
In Argolis Proetus built Tiryns, but later, under Perseus, Mycenae took the lead until the Achaean conquest.
Sites have also been explored in Phocis (Hagia Marina) and Boeotia, in AetoIia (Thermon) and the Ionian Islands, in Attica, at Argos, Mycenae and Tiryns, in the neighbourhood of Corinth, and in the islands of Aegina, Cythera, Euboea, Melos, Paros, and Rhodes.
Prehistoric buildings of the semielliptical plan, which previously appeared beneath classical remains at Olympia and at Orchomenos in Boeotia, have now been discovered under the Mycenaean palace of Tiryns, under an Hellenic temple at Thermon in Aetolia and in Levkas.
Tiryns was dug again by the German Institute (until 1914), Phylakopi in Melos (1912) and the Kamares Cave in Crete (1913) by the British School at Athens, who also began in 1920 a further excavation on the acropolis of Mycenae.
Those from Tiryns are a most remarkable series; the figure frescos which have been reconstructed represent women in procession, a chariot group and a boar hunt.
Other discoveries at Tiryns were a beehive tomb, perfectly preserved and used throughout the classical period, some pottery vases which bear painted inscriptions in characters said to be derived from the Cretan script, and an accidental find of Mycenaean treasure in 1915 by a labourer employed in the agricultural school.
A Geometric cemetery was dug by the Germans at Tiryns, and their finds have been accurately published (1912).
Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly (1912); German Archaeological Institute, Tiryns, vols.
Old legends represent him as having exterminated the Picts to the last man; and the Picts become, hi popular tradition, a mythical folk, hardly human, to whom great feats, including the building of Glasgow cathedral, are attributed, as the walls of Tiryns and Mycenae in Greece were traditionally assigned to the energy of the Cyclopes.
Midea and Tiryns form a group of cities founded by an immigrant people in opposition to Argos, the natural capital of the plain and the stronghold of the native race.
A later attempt to retrieve this loss resulted in a crushing defeat near Tiryns at the hands of King Cleomenes I.
About 470 the conflict with Sparta was renewed in concert with the Arcadians, but al] that the Argives could achieve was to destroy their revolted dependencies of Mycenae and Tiryns (468 or 464).
The distance from the Heraeum to the ancient Midea is slightly greater than to Mycenae, while that from the Heraeum to Tiryns is about 6 m.
In fact, whereas the site of Hissarlik, the ancient Troy, is not in Greece proper, but in Asia Minor, and can thus not furnish the most direct evidence for the earliest Hellenic civilization as such; and whereas Tiryns, Mycenae, and the city of Argos, each represent only one definite period in the successive stages of civilization, the Argive Heraeum, holding the central site of early civilization in Greece proper, not only retained its importance during the three periods marked by the supremacy of Tiryns, Mycenae and the city of Argos, but in all probability antedated them as a centre of civilized Argive life.
When Mycenae was built under the Perseids it was still the chief sanctuary for that centre, which superseded Tiryns in its dominance over the district, and which this temple clearly antedated in construction.
While it was thus probably chosen as the earliest site for a citadel facing the sea, its second period points towards Tiryns and Midea.
The west building, the traces of bridges and roads, show that at one time it did hold some relation to Mycenae; but this was long after its foundation or the building of the huge Cyclopean supporting wall which is coeval with the walls of Tiryns, these again being earlier than those of Mycenae.
There are, moreover, traces of still more primitive walls, built of rude small stones placed one upon the other without mortar, which are in character earlier than those of Tiryns, and have their parallel in the lowest layers of Hissarlik.
Bearing out the evidence of tradition as well as architecture, the numerous finds of individual objects in terra-cotta figurines, vases, bronzes, engraved stones, &c., point to organized civilized life on this site many generations before Mycenae was built, a fortiori before the life as depicted by Homer flourished - nay, before, as tradition has it, under Proetus the walls of Tiryns were erected.
Serpents which would only attack those who were not natives were to be found on the banks of the Euphrates and also at Tiryns (Mir.
The king's palace, if we may judge from Tiryns and Mycenae, was usually in a strong situation on an " acropolis."
Andromeda followed her husband to Tiryns in Argos, and became the ancestress of the family of the Perseidae.
Was the son of Anaxandridas, whom he succeeded about 520 B.C. His chief exploit was his crushing victory near Tiryns over the Argives, some 6000 of whom he burned to death in a sacred grove to which they had fled for refuge (Herodotus vi.
In 1880 and 1881 Schliemann cleared out the ruined dometomb of Orchomenus, finding little except remains of its beautiful ceiling; and in 1885, with DOrpfeld, he laid bare the upper stratum on the rock of Tiryns, presenting scholars with a complete ground plan of a Mycenaean palace.