TIRPITZ, ALFRED VON (1849-), German admiral and politician, was born at Kiistrin March Iq 1849.
On the other hand, it was Tirpitz who not only conducted the practical advocacy of these schemes in the Reichstag, but also organized the service of propaganda in the German press and on the platform, putting popular pressure on the parliamentary representatives of the nation and constraining them to agree to the enormous expenditure which these schemes entailed.
In the conduct of the naval war the official role of Tirpitz was confined to reporting and advising at general headquarters, the actual conduct and initiative in operations being in the hands of the higher command of the navy at Wilhelmshaven, subject to the Emperor's approval or veto.
Tirpitz advances two contentions; first, that he would have sent the navy into decisive action at an earlier stage of the war; secondly, that he would have made an earlier and more ruthless use of the German U-boats; but his opponents traverse both these claims, and in particular assert that as Secretary of State he had neglected the construction of submarines, so that Germany entered the war with a comparatively small supply of these vessels.
In the political sphere Tirpitz was a bitter opponent of Bethmann Hollweg, whom he charged with indecision, half-heartedness and nebulous conceptions of the necessities of German policy.
Lord Haldane, in his book Before the War (1920), records his impression of Tirpitz when he visited Berlin in Feb.
Bethmann Hollweg, Lord Haldane thought, was willing to entertain the British suggestions; it was Tirpitz who behind the scenes offered a most strenuous opposition to any restrictions.
Tirpitz himself maintains that his naval aspirations were directed not towards a war with Great Britain, but to the creation of a state of naval equilibrium or of German superiority, which would have enabled Germany to insist upon the unreserved cooperation of British policy in her world aims. It was probably true that Germany's policy was directed rather towards being so strong at sea as to make England unwilling to fight her unless absolutely necessary, than towards actually challenging British naval supremacy.
Tirpitz remained a leading figure in the political agitation against the Chancellor's policy and was selected as president of the " Vaterlandspartei," a political association started in Sept.
After the revolution Tirpitz was one of those against whom German popular animosity was chiefly directed as being the inspirer of the naval and world policy which led to the war, and also the most powerful influence in prolonging it.
Of Ostend was the Tirpitz battery with 4 r r-in: ranging 35, 000 yd., and 3 m.
In the session of 1901 Admiral von Tirpitz, the minister of marine, admitted in answer to a Socialist interpellation that the naval programme of 1900 would have to be enlarged.