If the tenant neglected to reclaim the land the Code enacted that he must hand it over in good tilth and fixed a statutory rent.
During this period, until the plants begin to ripen, the tilth is maintained and weeds checked first by horse cultivators or horsehoes, and, as the plants increase in size, by hand labour.
If the tenant paid his rent, the landlord could not forbid subletting.
Every effort should be made to prepare a good mealy tilth by suitable ploughing, harrowing and consolidation.
It tends to improve the tilth and the capillarity of the soil by binding sands together somewhat and by opening up clays.
It is this power of creating a more crumbly tilth on stiff clays that makes lime so valuable to the farmer.
The greatest possible care is bestowed on the preparation of the seed bed - it must have good, very rich soil in fine tilth, be protected from winds, and yet well exposed to sunlight; the southern or south-eastern slope of an open place in a forest is often selected.
In early districts seeding may take place as early as February, provided a fine tilth is obtainable, but it rarely extends beyond the end of April.
After-cultivation may comprise rolling, harrowing (to preserve the fineness of the tilth) and in some districts hoeing.
The ground must also be thoroughly cleared of the roots of all coarse, perennial weeds, and be worked to a fine tilth ready for turfing or sow ing.
The land, having been ploughed in autumn, is prepared for sowing by working it with the grubber, harrow and roller, until a fine tilth is obtained.
The cultivation of the turnip and other root crops, which require the soil to be wrought to a deep and free tilth, either becomes altdgether impracticable and must be abandoned for the safe but costly bare fallow, or is carried out with great labour and hazard; and the crop, when grown, can neither be removed from the ground, nor consumed upon it by sheep without damage by "poaching."